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By Herman Melville I AND MY CHIMNEY (i.) I and my chimney, two grey-headed old smokers, reside in the country. We are, I may say, old settlers here; particularly my old chimney, which settles more and more every day. Though I always say, I and my chimney, as Cardinal Wol- sey used to say, I and my King, yet this egotistic way of speak- ing, wherein I take precedence of my chimney, is hardly borne out by the facts; in everything, except the above phrase, my chimney taking precedence of me. Within thirty feet of the turf-sided road, my chimney——a huge, corpulent old Harry VIII of a chimney——rises full in front of me and all my possessions. Standing well up a hill-side, my chimney, like Lord Rosse's monster telescope, swung verti- cal to hit the meridian moon, is the first object to greet the ap- proaching traveler's eye; nor is it the last which the sun salutes. My chimney, too, is before me in receiving the first-fruits of the seasons. The snow is on its head ere on my hat; and every spring, as in a hollow beech tree, the first swallows build their nests in it. But it is within doors that the pre-eminence of y chimney is most manifest. When in the rear room, set apart for that ob- ject, I stand to receive my guests (who, by the way, call more, I suspect, to see my chimney than me), I then stand, not so much before, as, strictly speaking, behind my chimney, which is, indeed, the true host. Not that I demur. In the presence of my betters, I hope I know my place. From this habitual precedence of my chimney over me, some even think that I have got into a sad rearward way altogether; in short, from standing behind my old-fashioned chimney so much, I have got to be quite behind the age too, as well as running behindhand in everything else. But to tell the truth, I never was a very forward old fellow, nor what my farming neighbors call and forehanded one. Indeed, those rumors about my behindhandedness are so far correct, that I have an odd sauntering way with me sometimes of going about with my hands behind my back. As for my belonging to the rear-guard in general, certain it is, I bring up the rear of my chimney—— which, by the way, is this moment before me——and that, too, both in fancy and fact. In brief, my chimney is my superior; my superior by I know not how many heads and shoulders; my superior, too, in that humbly bowing over with shovel and tongs, I must minister to it; yet never does it minister, or in- cline over to me; but, if anything, in its settlings, rather leans the other way. My chimney is grand seignior here——the one great dom- ineering object, not more of the landscape, than of the house; all the rest of which house, in each architectural arrangement, as may shortly appear, is, in the most marked manner, accom- modated, not to my wants, but to the chimney's, which, among other things, has the centre of the house to itself, leaving but the odd holes and corners to me. But I and my chimney must explain; and, as we are both rather obese, we may have to expatiate. In those houses which are strictly double houses——that is, where the hall is in the middle——the fireplaces usually are pon opposite sides; so that while one member of the household is warming himself at a fire built into a recess of the north wall, say another member, the former owner's brother, perhaps, may be holding his feet to the blaze before a hearth in the south wall——the two thus fairly sitting back to back. Is this well? Be it put to any man who has a proper fraternal feeling. Has it not a sort of sulky appearance? But very probably this style of chimney building originated with some architect afflicted with a quarrelsome family. Then again, almost every modern fireplace has its separate flue——separate throughout, from hearth to chimney-top. At least such an arrangement is deemed desirable. Does this not look egotistical, selfish? But still more, all these separate flues, instead of having independent masonry establishments of their own, or instead of being grouped together in one federal stock in the middle of the house——instead of this, I say, each flue is surreptitiously honey-combed into the walls; so that these last are here and there, or indeed almost anywhere, treacherously hollow, and, in consequence, more or less weak. Of course, the main reason of this style of chimney building is to economize room. In cities, where lots are sold by the inch, small space is to spare for a chimney constructed on magnani- mous principles; and, as with most thin men, who are generally tall, so with such houses, what is lacking in breadth must be made up in height. This remark holds true even with regard to many very stylish abodes, built by the most stylish of gentle- men. And yet, when that stylish gentleman, Louis le Grand of France, would build a palace for his lady friend, Madame de Maintenon, he built it but one story high——in fact, in the cot- tage style. But then, how uncommonly quadrangular, spacious, and broad——horizontal acres, not vertical one. Such is the pal- ace which, in all its one-storied magnificence of Languedoc marble, in the garden of Versailles, still remains to this day. Any man can buy a square foot of land and plant a liberty- pole upon it; but it takes a king to set apart whole acres for a Grand Trianon. But nowadays it is different; and furthermore, what origi- nated in a necessity has been mounted into a vaunt. In towns there is a large rivalry in building tall houses. If one gentleman builds his house four stories high, and another gentleman comes next door and builds five stories high, then the former, not to be looked down upon that way, immediately sends for his architect and claps a fifth and a sixth story on top of his pre- vious four. And, not til the gentleman has achieved his aspira- tion, not till he has stolen over the way by twilight and observed how the sixth story soars beyond his neighbor's fifth——not till then does he retire to rest with satisfaction. Such folks, it seems to me, need mountains for neighbors, to take this emulous conceit of soaring out of them. If, considering that mine is a very wide house, and by no means lofty, aught in the above may appear like interested pleading, as if I did but fold myself about in the cloak of a gen- eral proposition, cunningly to tickle my individual vanity be- neath it, such misconceptions must vanish upon my frankly conceding that land adjoining my alder swamp was sold last month for ten dollars an acre, and thought a rash purchase at that; so that for wide houses hereabouts there is plenty of room, and cheap. Indeed, so cheap——dirt cheap——is the soil, that our elms thrust out their roots in it, and hang their great boughs over it, in the most lavish and reckless way. Almost all our crops, too, are sown broadcast, even peas and turnips. A farmer among us, who should go about his twenty-acre field, poking his finger into it here and there, and dropping down a mustard seed, would be thought a penurious, narrow-minded husbandman. The dandelions in the river-meadows, and the forget-me-nots along the mountain roads, you see at once they are put to no economy in space. Some seasons, too, our rye comes up, here and there a spear sole and single like a church- spire. It doesn't care to crowd itself where it knows there is such a deal of room. The world is wide, the world is all before us, says the rye. Wees, too, it is amazing how they spread. No such thing as arresting them——some of out pastures being a sort of Alsatia for the weeds. As for the grass, every spring it is like Kossuth's rising of what he calls the peoples. Mountains, too, a regular camp-meeting of them. For the same reason, the same all-sufficiency of room, our shadows march and countermarch, going through their various drills and masterly evolutions, like the old imperial guard on the Champs de Mars. As for the hills, especially where the roads cross them, the supervisors of our various towns have given notice to all concerned, that they can come and dig them down and cart them off and never a cent to pay, no more than for the privilege of picking blackberries. The stranger who is buried here, what liberal-hearted landed proprietor among us grudges him his six feet of rocky pasture? Nevertheless, cheap, after all, as our land is, and much as it is trodden under foot, I, for one, am proud of it for what it bears; and chiefly for its three great lions——the Great Oak, Ogg Mountain, and my chimney. Most houses are are but one and a half stories high; few exceed two. That in which I and my chimney dwell, is in width nearly twice its height, from sill to eaves——which accounts for the magnitude of its main content——besides showing that in this house, as in this country at large, there is abundance of space, and to spare, for both of us. The frame of the old house is of wood——which but the more sets forth the solidity of the chimney, which is of brick. And as the great wrought nails, binding the clapboards, are unknown in these degenerate days, so are the huge bricks in the chimney walls. The architect of the chimney must have had the pyramid of Cheops before him; for after that famous structure it seems modeled, only its rate of decrease towards the summit is con- siderably less, and it is truncated. From the exact middle of the mansion it soars from the cellar, right up through each suc- cessive floor, till, four feet square, it breaks water from the ridge-pole of the roof, like an anvil-headed whale, through the crest of a billow. Most people, though, liken it, in that part, to a razeed observatory, masoned up. The reason for its peculiar appearance above the roof touches upon rather delicate ground. How shall I reveal that, foras- much as many years ago the original gable roof of the old house had become very leaky, a temporary proprietor hired a band of woodmen, with their huge, crosscut saws, and went to saw- ing the old gable roof clean off. Off it went, with all its birds' nests, and dormer windows. It was replaced with a modern roof, more fit for a railway wood-house than an old country gentleman's abode. This operation——razeeing the structure some fifteen feet——was, in effect upon the chimney, something like the falling of the great spring tides. It left uncommon low water all about the chimney——to abate which appearance, the same person now proceeds to slice fifteen feet off the chimney itself, actualyl beheading my royal old chimney——a regicidal act which, were it not for the palliating fact that he was a poulterer by trade, and, therefore, hardened to such neck- wringings, should send that former proprietor down to pos- terity in the same cart with Cromwell. Owing to its pyramidal shape, the reduction of the chimney inordinately widened its razeed summit. Inordinately, I say, but only in the estimation of such as have no eye to the pic- turesque. What care I, if, unaware that my chimney, as a free citizen of this free land, stands upon an independent basis of its own, people passing it wondering how such a brick-kiln, as they call it, is supported upon mere joists and rafters? What care I? I will give a traveler a cup of switchel, if he ants it; but am I bound to supply him with a sweet taste? Men of cultivated minds see, in my old house and chimney, a goodly old elephant- and-castle. All feeling hearts will sympathize with me in what I am now about to add. The surgical operation, above referred to, nec- essarily brought into the open air a part of the chimney previously under cover, and intended to remain so and, there- fore, not built of what are called weather-bricks. In con- sequence, the chimney, though of a vigorous constitution, suffered not a little from so naked an exposure; and, unable to acclimate itself, ere long began to fail——showing blotchy symp- toms akin to those in the measles. Whereupon travelers, passing my way, would wag their heads, laughing: "See that wax nose ——how it melts off!" But what cared I? The same travelers would travel across the sea to view Kenilworth peeling away, and for a very good reason: that of all artists of the picturesque, decay wears the palm——I would say, the ivy. In fact, I've often thought that the proper place for my old chimney is ivied old England. In vain my wife——with what probable ulterior intent will, ere long, appear——solemnly warned me, that unless something were done, and speedily, we should be burnt to the ground, owing to the holes crumbling through the aforesaid blotchy parts, where the chimney joined the roof. "Wife," said I, "far better that my house should burn down, than my chimney should be pulled down, though but a few feet. They call it a wax nose; very good; not for me to tweak the nose of my superior." But at last the man who has a mortgage on the house dropped me a note, reminding me that, if my chimney was allowed to stand in that invalid condition, my policy of insurance would be void. This was a sort of hint not to be neglected. All the world over, the picturesque yields to the pocketesque. The mort- gagor cared not, but the mortgagee did. So another operation was performed. The wax nose was taken off, and a new one fitted on. Unfortunately for the expression ——being put up buy a squint-eyed mason who, at the time, had a bad stitch in the same side——the new nose stands a little awry, in the same direction. Of one thing, however, I am proud. The horizontal dimen- sions of the new part are unreduced. Large as the chimney appears upon the roof, that is nothing to its spaciousness below. At its base in the cellar, it is precisely twelve feet square; and hence covers precisely one hundred and fourty-four superficial feet. What an appropriation of terra firma for a chimney, and what a huge load for this earth! In fact, it was only because I and my chimney formed no part of his an- cient burden, that that stout peddler, Atlas of old, was enabled to stand up so bravely under his pack. The dimensions given may, perhaps, seem fabulous. But, like those stones at Gilgal, which Joshua set up for a memorial of having passed over Jor- dan, does not my chimney remain, even unto this day? Very often I go down into my cellar, and attentively survey the vast square of masonry. I stand long, and ponder over, and wonder at it. It has a druidical look, away down in the umbrageous cellar there, whose numerous vaulted passages, and far glens of gloom, resemble he dark, damp depths of primeval woods. So strongly did this conceit steal over me, so deeply was I penetrated with wonder at the chimney, that one day——when I was a little out of my mind, I now think——get- ting a spade from the garden, I set to work, digging round the foundation, especially at the corners thereof, obscurely prompted by dreams of striking upon some old, earthen-worn memorial of that bygone day when, into all this gloom, the light of heaven entered, as the masons laid the foundation-stones, peradventure sweltering under the August sun, or pelted by a March storm. Plying my blunted spade, how vexed was I by that ungracious interruption of a neighbor, who, calling to see me upon some business, and being informed that I was below, said I need not be troubled to come up, but he would go down to me; and so, without ceremony, and without my having been forewarned, suddenly discovered me, digging in my cellar. "Gold-digging, sir?" "Nay, sir," answered I, starting, "I was merely——ahem! merely ——I say merely digging——round my chimney." "Ah, loosening the soil, to make it grow. Your chimney, sir, you regard as too small, I suppose; needing further develop- ment, especially at the top?" "Sir!" said I, throwing down the spade, "do not be personal. I and my chimney——" "Personal?" "Sir, I look upon this chimney less as a pile of masonry than as a personage. It is the king of the house. I am but a suffered and inferior subject." In fact, I would permit no gibes to be cast at either myself or my chimney; and never did my visitor refer to it in my hearing, without coupling some compliment with the mention. It deserves a respectful consideration. There it stands, solitary and alone——not a council -of-ten flues, but, like his sa- cred majesty of Russia, a unit of an autocrat. Even to me, its dimensions, at times, seem incredible. It does not look so big——no, not even in the cellar. By the mere eye, its magnitude can be but imperfectly comprehended, because only one side can be received at one time; and said side can only present twelve feet, linear measure. But then, each other side also is twelve feet long; and the whole obviously forms a square; and twelve times twelve is one hundred and forty-four. And so, and adequate conception of the magnitude of this chim- ney is only to be got at by a sort of process in the higher math- ematics, by a method somewhat akin to those whereby the surprising distances of fixed stars are computed. It need hardly be said that the walls of my house are entirely free from fireplaces. These all congregate in the middle——in the one grand central chimney, upon all four sides of which are hearths——two tiers of hearths——so that when, in the various chambers, my family and guests are warming themselves of a cold winter's night, just before retiring, then, though at the time they may not be thinking so, all their faces mutually look towards each other, yea, all their feet point to one centre; and, when they go to sleep in their beds, they all sleep round one warm chimney, like so many Iroquois Indians, in the woods, round their one heap of embers. And just as the Indians' fire serves, not only to keep them comfortable, but also to keep off wolves, and other savage monsters, so my chimney, by its ob- vious smoke at he top, keeps off prowling burglars from the towns ——for what burglar or murderer would dare break into an abode from whose chimney issues such a continual smoke_— betokening that if the inmates are not stirring, at least fires are, and in case of an alarm, candles may be lighted, to say nothing of muskets. But stately as is the chimney——yea, grand high altar as it is, right worthy for the celebration of High Mass before the Pope of Rome, and all his cardinals——yet what is there perfect in this world? Caius Julius Caesar, had he not been so inordinately great, they say that Brutus, Cassius, Antony, and the rest, had been greater. My chimney, were it not so mighty in its magni- tude, my chambers had been larger. How often has my wife ruefully told me, that my chimney, like all English aristocracy, casts a contracting shade all round it. She avers that endless domestic inconveniences arise——more particularly from the chimney's stubborn central locality. The grand objection with her is that it stands midway in the place where a fine entrance- hall ought to be. In truth, there is no hall whatever to the house ——nothing but a sort of square landing-place, as you enter from the wide front door. A roomy enough landing-place, I admit, but not attaining to the dignity of a hall. Now, as the front door is precisely in the middle of the front of the house, inwards it faces the chimney. In fact, the opposite wall of the landing- place is formed solely by the chimney; and hence——owing to the gradual tapering of the chimney——is a little less than twelve feet in width. Climbing the chimney in this part, is the princi- pal staircase——which, by three abrupt turns, and three minor landing-places, mounts to the second floor, where, over the front door, runs a sort of narrow gallery, something less than twelve feet long, leading to chambers on either hand. This gallery, of course, is railed; and so, looking down upon the stairs, and all those landing-places together, with the main one at bottom, resembles not a little a balcony for musicians, in some jolly old abode, in times Elizabethan. Shall I tell a weak- ness? I cherish the cobwebs there, and many a time arrest Biddy in the act of brushing them with her broom, and have many a quarrel with my wife and daughters about it. Now the ceiling, so to speak, of the place where you enter the house, that ceiling is, in fact, the ceiling of the second floor, not the first. The two floors are made one here, so that ascend- ing this turning stairs, you seem to go up into a kind of soar- ing tower, or light-house. At the second landing, midway up the chimney, is a mysterious door, entering to a mysterious closet; and here I keep mysterious cordials, of a choice, mys- terious flavor, made so by the constant nurturing and subtle ripening of the chimney's gentle heat, distilled through that warm mass of masonry. Better for wines is it than voyages to the Indies; my chimney itself a tropic. A chair by my chimney in a November day is as good for an invalid as a long season spent in Cuba. Often I think how grapes might ripen against my chimney. How my wife's geraniums bud there! Bud in December. Her eggs, too——can't keep them near the chimney, on account of hatching. Ah, a warm heart has my chimney. How often my wife was at me about that projected grand entrance-hall of hers, which was to be knocked clean through the chimney, from one end of the house to the other, and as- tonish all guests by its generous amplitude. "But, wife," said I, "the chimney——consider the chimney: if you demolish the foundation, what is to support the superstructure?" "Oh, that will rest on the second floor." The truth is, women know next to nothing about the realities of architecture. However, my wife still talked of running her entries and partitions. She spent many long nights elaborating her plans; in imagination build- ing her boasted hall through the chimney, as though its high mightiness were a mere spear of sorrel-top. At last, I gently reminded her that, little as she might fancy it, the chimney was a fact——a sober, substantial fact, which, in all her plannings, it would be well to take into full consideration. But this was not of much avail. And here, specially craving her permission, I must say a few words about this enterprising wife of mine. Though in years nearly as old as myself, in spirit she is young as my little sorrel mare, Trigger, that threw me last fall. What is extraordi- nary, though she comes of a rheumatic family, she is straight as a pine, never has any aches; while for me with the sciatica, I am sometimes as crippled up as any old apple tree. But she has not so much as a toothache. As for her hearing——let me en- ter the house in my dusty boots, and she away up in the attic. And for her sight——Biddy, the housemaid, tells other people's housemaids, that her mistress will spy a spot on the dresser straight through the pewter platter, put up on purpose to hide it. Her faculties are alert as her limbs and her senses. No danger of my spouse dying of torpor. The longest night in the year I've known her to lie awake, planning her campaign for the mor- row. She is a natural projector. The maxim, "Whatever is, is right," is not hers. Her maxim is, Whatever is, is wrong; and what is more, must be altered; and what is still more, must be altered right away. Dreadful maxim for the wife of a dozy old dreamer like me, who dotes on seventh days as days of rest, and, out of sabbatical horror of industry, will, on a week-day, go out of my road a quarter of a mile, to avoid the sight of a man at work. That matches are made in heaven, may be, but my wife would have been just the wife for Peter the Great, or Peter the Piper. How she would have set in order that huge littered em- pire of the one, and with indefatigable painstaking picked the peck of pickled peppers for the other. But the most wonderful thing is, my wife never thinks of her end. Her youthful incredulity, as to the plain theory, and still plainer fact of death, hardly seems Christian. Advanced in years, as she knows she must be, my wife seems to think that she is to teem on, and be inexhaustible forever. She doesn't believe in old age. At that strange promise in the plain of Mamre, my old wife, unlike old Abraham's, would not have jeeringly laughed within herself. Judge how to me, who, sitting in the comfortable shadow of my chimney, smoking my comfortable pipe, with ashes not unwelcome at my feet, and ashes not unwelcome all but in my mouth; and who am thus in a comfortable sort of not unwel- come, though, indeed, ashy enough way, reminded of the ul- timate exhaustion even of the most fiery life; judge how to me this unwarrantable vitality in my wife must come, sometimes, it is true, with a moral and a calm, but oftener with a breeze and a ruffle. If the doctrine be true, that in wedlock contraries attract, but how cogent a fatality must I have been drawn to my wife! While spicily impatient of present and past, like a glass of gin- ger-beer she overflows with her schemes; and, with like energy as she puts down her foot, puts down her preserves and her pickles, and lives with them in a continual future; or ever full of expectations both from time and space, is ever restless for newspapers, and ravenous for letters. Content with the years that are gone, taking no thought for the morrow, and looking for no new thing from any person or quarter whatever, I have not a single scheme or expectation on earth, save in unequal resistance of the undue encroachment of hers. Old myself, I take to oldness in things; for that cause mainly loving old Montaigne, and old cheese, and old wine; and eschewing young people, hot rolls, new book, and early potatoes, and very fond of my old claw-footed chair, and old club-footed Deacon White, my neighbor, and that still nigher old neighbor, my betwisted grape-vine, that of a summer evening leans in his elbow for cosy company at my window- sill, while I, within doors, lean over mine to meet his; and above all, high above all, am fond of my highmanteled old chimney. But she, out of that infatuate juvenility of hers, takes to nothing but newness; for that cause mainly, loving new cider in autumn, and in spring, as if she were own daughter of Nebuchadnezzar, fairly raving after all sorts of salads and spin- aches, and more particularly green cucumbers (though all the time nature rebukes such unsuitable young hankerings in so elderly a person, by never permitting such things to agree with her), and has an itch after recently-discovered fine pros- pects (so no grave-yard be in the background), and also after Swedenborgianism, and the Spirit Rapping philosophy, with other new views, alike in things natural and unnatural; and immortally hopeful, is forever making new flower-beds even on the north side of the house, where the bleak mountain wind would scarce allow the wiry weed called hard-hack to gain a thorough footing; and on the road-side sets out mere pipestems of young elms; though there is no hope of any shade from them, except over the ruins of her great granddaughters' grave-stones; and won't wear caps, but plaits her gray hair; and takes the Ladies' Magazine for the fashions; and always buys her new almanac a month before the new year; and rises at dawn; and to the warmest sunset turns a cold shoulder; and still goes on at odd hours with her new course of history, and her French, and her music; and likes young company; and offers to ride young colts; and sets out young suckers in the orchard; and has a spite against my elbowed old grape-vine, and my club-footed old neighbor, and my claw-footed old chair, and above all, high above all, would fain persecute, unto death, my high- manteled old chimney. By what perverse magic, I a thousand times think, does such a very autumnal old lady have such a very vernal young soul? When I would remonstrate at times, she spins round on me with, "Oh, don't you grumble, old man (she always calls me old man), it's I, young I, that keep you from stagnating." Well, I suppose it is so. Yea, after all, these things are well ordered. My wife, as one of her poor relations, good soul, intimates, is the salt of the earth, and none the less the salt of my sea, which otherwise were unwholesome. She is its monsoon, too blowing a brisk gale over it, in the one steady direction of my chimney. Not insensible of her superior energies, my wife has fre- quently made me propositions to take upon herself all the responsibilities of my affairs. She is desirous that, domestically, I should abdicate; that, renouncing further rule, like the vener- able Charles V, I should retire into some sort of monastery. But indeed, the chimney excepted, I have little authority to lay down. My wife's ingenious application of the principle that certain things belong to right to female jurisdiction, I find myself, through my easy compliances, insensibly stripped by de- grees of one masculine prerogative after another. In a dream I go about my fields, a sort of lazy, happy-go-lucky, good-for- nothing, loafing old Lear. Only by some sudden revelation am I reminded who is over me; as year before last, one day seeing in one corner of the premises fresh deposits of mysterious boards and timbers, the oddity of the incident at length begat serious meditation. "Wife," said I, "whose boards and timbers are those I see near the orchard there? Do you know anything about them, wife? Who put them there? You know I do not like the neighbors to use my land that way; they should ask per- mission first." She regarded me with a pitying smile. "Why, old man, don't you know I am building a new barn? Didn't you know that, old man?" This is the poor old lady that was accusing me of tyrannizing over her. To return now to the chimney. Upon being assured of the futility of her proposed hall, so long as the obstacle remained, for a time my wife was for a modified project. But I could never exactly comprehend it. As far as I could see through it, it seemed to involve the general idea of a sort of irregular arch- way, or elbowed tunnel, which was to penetrate the chimney at some convenient point under the stair-case, and carefully avoiding dangerous contact with fireplaces, and particu- larly steering clear of the great interior flue, was to conduct the enterprising traveler from the front door all the way into the dining-room in the remote rear of the mansion. Doubtless it was a bold stroke of genius, that plan of hers, and so was Nero's when he schemed his grand canal through the Isthmus of Corinth. Nor will I take oath, that, had her project been ac- complished, then, by help of lights hung at judicious intervals through the tunnel, some Belzoni or other might have suc- ceeded in future ages to penetrate through the masonry, and actually emerging into the dining-room, and once there, it would have been inhospitable treatment of such a traveler to have denied him a recruiting meal. But my bustling wife did not restrict her objections, nor in the end confine her proposed alterations to the first floor. Her ambition was of the mounting order. She ascended with her schemes to the second floor, and so to the attic. Perhaps there was some small ground for her discontent with things as they were. The truth is, there was no regular passage-way up stairs or down, unless we again except that little orchestra-gallery before mentioned. And all this was owing to the chimney, which my gamesome spouse seemed despitefully to regard as the bully of the house. On all its four sides, nearly all the cham- bers sidled up to the chimney for the benefit of a fireplace. The chimney would not go to them; they must needs go to it. The consequence was, almost every room, like a philosophical sys- tem, was in itself an entry, or passage-way to other rooms, and systems of rooms——a whole suite of entries, in fact. Going through the house, you seem to be forever going somewhere, and getting nowhere. It is like losing one's self in the woods; round and round the chimney you go, and if you arrive at all, it is just where you started, and so you begin again, and again get nowhere. Indeed——though I say it not in the way of fault- finding at all——never was there so labyrinthine an abode. Guests will tarry with me several weeks and every now and then, be anew astonished at some unforeseen apartment. 
from Herman Melville : Selected Tales and Poems Edited, with an introduction by Richard Chase Rinehart Edition paperback, seventh printing, 1959; pp. 159 —173.
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2019 should be the year that you start your food business... Here's how (Mini-AMA all weekend)

So you love to eat. No kidding! You need to eat to live. So does everyone else. Starting a food business is fun, stressful, and it's a blast when someone you have no clue who they are likes what you made.
You have a burning desire to start a hot sauce / juice / beverage / cookie / baked goods / bitcoin gummy bear company. Basically if someone wants to put it in their mouth, you have an idea for it. So let's get to it. Break it down, from start to finish (lol, it's never done).
WARNING: This may seem as some what self-promoting, but the only thing I will say now is that I started a 3PL shipping company specifically for food items. No links to it, but you can check my post history, but I'll save you the time. I used to be a web / app developer, got tired of the grind with trying to get clients to pay, got tired, bought a food truck with ZERO experience (seriously, my first event I bought 300 loaves of bread. Used 4.5. It was pretty comical and family / friends ate sourdough for WEEKS). I brought the food truck up, had the truck, a pop-up restaurant on Las Vegas Blvd., got an offer to sell the physical truck and book of business, took it, and kept the name rights. Now I'm using my skills both in tech and food to streamline and help foodpreneurs. Take this with whatever grain of salt you want.
Also, to state real quick, DO NOT PM ME QUESTIONS... I am here to open things up so everyone can learn, so the next person looking how to start up a hot sauce company gets relevant information and not "Sent you a PM." I'm gonna be around all weekend, and want to help everyone. I'll try and make responses as detailed / personalized as I can. The more info you post, the more I can help.
Part 1: You have an idea - Great - Treat it like a start-up, because it is
Food can be unsexy. Kitchens are hot, you burn yourself, you get covered in grease, you slip on stainless steel floors (true), and every once in a while theres some knife cuts. BUT, when you know that you just bought a $20 case of potatoes (50 lb) and are selling french fries for $6 for like 3oz of potatoes, your fave words become "Would you like fries with that?"
Key 1 - Know your numbers. Go shopping. You already have your idea, so go shopping. Make a test recipe at home, solely for the purpose of cost analysis. Jump on google sheets, and list EVERY ingredient on your list, and then look at other things, which I call hidden costs.
Visible Costs - Recipe ingredients, packaging, labeling Hidden Costs - How long does it take you to cook / bake / make (labor time), how long do you need to cook it (oven wear and tear, gas, electric for mixer, etc)
You can have a ton of hidden costs beyond just the actual ingredients, and these often get overlooked. If you plan on growing the business, get a friend and your phone and take pictures of HOW YOU WANT IT DONE along each step. Create the "brand" manual for your food / baked good / sauce, etc. Is the hot sauce supposed to be chunky? Is it supposed to be smooth? Are the cookies supposed to be a 30% shade of brown for crispness, and how long did you leave it in the oven for? Those should ALL be documented. You have the time now, and you should be doing it.
Key 2 - Find your suppliers, and find about discounts
You know what you need, and retail might not be the cheapest, or it could be. Play the sales. If you are making a cookie that uses bananas, can you take advantage of price matching at Walmart vs a restaurant supply store to get a better deal and cheaper ingredients? As a smaller company / maker, this should be a good idea, as it will help you create your MVP much cheaper.
Part 2: For the love of everything holy use google to find about your licensing requirements. (I won't do this for you as part of the AMA, just an FYI).
Everyone seems to get tied up with "Can I make this soup / cookie / hot sauce." The short answer is yes, you can, and you can test it legally. It'll take a few dollars, but it's worth it because of the access you can get.
  • Start with your local city or county health department. As you can see from my name, I'm in Vegas. Southern Nevada Health District manages all of the food. They will handle the licensing for food establishments and producers. If you need some Google help, search "[my city] health department]" "[my county] health department]" and if that search returns unfruitful, then search for "[my city] cottage food laws" "cottage food laws [my city / my county]" because small producers will 90% of the time be allowed to create small batches of what are considered "non-hazardous foods" in a home kitchen with little to no oversight. WHAT THIS MEANS: You will most likely be able to bake cookies, cupcakes, make a hot sauce, MAYBE a soup, basically anything that is heated / cooked and can be left out and still be fine. There is almost zero chance your sushi delivery service will be allowed. Fun fact, you cannot serve raw bacon, but under some cottage food laws, cooked bacon is fine because it is turned into a "jerky" classification. So you need to read. I'm not a lawyer, I just like paperwork. Don't be an idiot.
  • Licensing of some sort will be a key part of you starting to get out there. Theres a semi-good chance you can sell on FB, to friends family, at a school bake sale, or even through Etsy / your own online shop without getting any kind of official letter or licensing requirements. SWAT isn't coming because you're selling grandmas cookies on Etsy, so breathe and relax. If you go to a craft show, farmers market, etc, that is when the licensing comes into play, but putting that time and effort / money into it will put you lightyears ahead of everyone else doing it out of their house. Also, fees tend to be pretty low, so you can test your idea from SOMEONE WHO IS EXCHANGING MONEY FOR YOUR GOODS AND DOES NOT CARE ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS. Everyones family / spouse / friends won't really be too keen to tell you "Yo dawg, this is garbage sauce / cupcake / icing / soup" so gathering feedback on what works cheaply before you use student loans on your hot sauce idea is a good thing. Few dollars up front to keep you from doing something dumb.
  • If you are going to go through the trouble of going through licensing to go to a farmers market, etc., then please, child, have a seat and start collecting feedback. Make your product better. It's not hard. "Hey, free half cookie for an email for a survey, and when we launch, we will email you a 30% off coupon." It's not hard, survey money and google forms are free. Mailchimp is free for small accounts. Do the work, otherwise throw your money away at a strip club.
Part 3: Liability and the business
You've now established that grandma wasn't lying to you, and your bacon jerky business is viable, and you're starting to see an increase in orders. Here's what to do next, now that you've "proven the concept" beyond people who will lie to you.
  • Get an LLC / Corp. Use something like Gust Launch, Clerky, or Stripe Atlas. <--- Use google. No links. Time to use your big boy pants. Open a new tab. An LLC / Corp will allow you to set up a business bank account, so when something goes wrong (it will), you can separate your personal life from the business. It's less than $1,000, and worth every penny.
  • Get a business bank account. Credit unions are dope, but big banks work too. Also, cash is fine, but the more credit cards you process, the better. Different schools of thought on this, I just like not having to deal with cash. Some banks charge you a cash handling fee over a certain cash deposit limit (true story). I found a trick to get around this. Go to a check cashing / payday loan place, buy a money order (free usually), then deposit the money order. It's not cash. Just my $.02.
  • BUY BUSINESS INSURANCE.... It's cheap. We paid like $100 a month for $500k in coverage if memory serves me right, and scaled up based on what the client needed through umbrella policies. Our truck insurance for business was like $300 a month on the commercial vehicle. You're dealing with food, and people can get sick. Just do it. When it saves your ass down the road, message me and you can buy me a 2 for $3 Rockstar from 7-11 as a thank you.
  • WTF are you actually selling is a big thing, and regulations will play a pretty big part of this, because it may fall under some OTHER, LARGER authority. There was a post recently for someone who wanted to repackage cheese as part of a cheese of the month box. Bro, FDA and USDA are all over that. There are several agencies I would never want to run afoul of, FBI, IRS, SEC, and FDA. Seriously, you'll get smacked harder than a toddler falling out of a shopping cart if you anger any of those agencies. Use Google. Heres an example. Friend of mine wanted to start a meal prep company, and wanted to do fresh juices. Seems simple because fresh juice places are everywhere right? Not. According to FDA regulations, even for small producers, any part of a "fresh juice" derived from "any part of the fresh vegetable / fruit" was supposed to be handled and cared for according to HCAAP and be pasteurized. Now, fun fact.... Making fresh juice "to order" does not fall under these categories because it would be intended for "immediate consumption." So as long as the meal prep guys made food ahead of time, but only made the juice and bottled it same day, it would fall under these guidelines, and wouldn't be tied to a whole host of regulations and expense. Leave it overnight? Nahh, can't do it. Same day? Totally fine. LEARN TO READ, BECAUSE A SMALL CHANGE COULD SAVE YOU. I've already decided I wouldn't do good in prison, so I don't want to go to jail.
  • You'll need a corporate structure and an EIN most likely for official licenses and for tax reporting. If you're selling online, something like TaxJar is a godsend. You'll need this also if you connect to your POS system to get paid and make that monnnaaayyyyyyy....
  • Something that I've seen brought up here countless times is "well I'm getting busy but my mom / wife / grandma needs to cook in the kitchen," or the good problem to have, "I'm busy with orders because the local news station picked it up and I can't make it fast enough." You're going to want to start investigating what are called "commissary kitchens" or "rentable commercial kitchens" and again, use the googles. [my city / county] commissary kitchens. There are a ton in almost every major city (except Vegas, dunno why). Or search for "kitchens for rent by the hour." You'll get access to larger / better equipment, usually rentable all-in by the hour, so it'll help you plan and budget, because earlier you did all the recipe and timing cards so you know how long it will take (see, I'm not a complete idiot).
Part 4: Launching
HOOOLLLLYYYYYYYYY SHHHHHIIIIIITTTTTTTTTTT..... You're ready to go big time, and are listening to "All I do is win" on repeat on your speakers and standing in your front yard shooting your not-a-flamethrower in the sky. Some things you should start to think about:
  • Branding is big. Have you secured the .com? You need to. There are different schools of thought on if different TLD's are okay. I say no, personally, and I won't pick a name if the .com isn't available. Work on a decent label or branding sticker. Packaging is key as well. For bottles, check out SKS Bottle. For boxes check out U-Line. You might be able to find someone cheaper locally, because shipping is a huge expense of heavy boxes / packaging (supplier to you). Check out StickerMule, Lightning Labels, or google "label suppliers." If you want the non-shiny labels, look for "matte" labels.
  • Social will be major. Not only for being able to launch your own brand, but if you ever decide to go into retail, or distribute. It's common sense in this day and age. I will tell you, that if you have a product that is consumer based, show them how to use it. Hot sauce? Start making recipes and posting them with your hot sauce. Cookies? Show different ways cookies can be given as gifts. Interact with people celebrating things. Pay attention to holidays. Bacon jerky? Go to a NASCAR event, biker rally, take pics, and interact. Give samples away. Go where your target market is.
  • Distribution. Take a listen to "Major Distribution" by 50 Cent. Great hype song. Or Go Getter by Young Jeezy. You're now the Columbians trying to get your hot sauce crack into as many hands as you can. You're selling online, spending hours packaging each bottle with care, printing labels, while you child is crying and your wife is burning rice for the 6th night in a row. Your hands smell like Kraft packaging. Bubble wrap is your defacto blanket....
STOP READING HERE BECAUSE THIS IS SEMI-SELF PROMOTIONAL BECAUSE I AM GIVING TIPS RELATED TO WHAT I DO. LOOK FOR THE NEXT SET OF ALL CAPS TO SKIP THIS ENTIRELY.
A regular distributor will take your product, buy it, and resell it. They may add it to their product catalog, maybe a "hey, Massive Diablo Hot Sauce is a new sauce we are carrying, want to try it?" "Nahhhhh..." "Okay, normal hot sauce it is then." You are the owner of your hot sauce. You're the owner of your packaged cookies. You're the owner of your gluten free, purple yam potato chip. You care the most. You can go the traditional distribution route, and it can happen, but for someone to want to pick you up, you need traction. That's where a food 3PL comes into play (which is a grossly underserved market imho). You pay to rent space in a warehouse, usually by the pallet or half pallet size, pay monthly, and then you pay each order sent out. You need to make sure the numbers work for this.
You're now shipping orders more efficiently, and most likely taking advantage of their shipping discounts because of volume. Straight forward, we plug our own account details into ShipStation for FedEx and get even better rates because of the volume we do. The more you ship, if you have a loading dock, etc. all play into your rates.
Now, you've offloaded the task of shipping to someone else, and are free to focus on sales, growing the business. If you move to a co-packer (more below), your co-packer is sending your stuff to us in bulk, and we are shipping, basically moving you out of the equation almost entirely. You'll need someone who tracks lot numbers, shipment dates, and more in case of a recall, and who got what in an inventory management system (we do, hence the tech background). Temp, shelf life, FIFO, expiration dates, and breakage all are things you need to consider when working with someone.
OKAY YOU CAN KEEP READING NOW THAT YOU'VE SKIPPED THE SELF PROMOTION (KIND OF) PART
  • Co-packers will save your sanity, your relationships, and keep you from smelling like chocolate chips or ghost peppers on date night. Because you've done your starards manual, and updated it based on tweaks, you can start searching for a co-packer. Google the meaning. It's not hard. Don't ask me what a co-packer is. Youre going to want to look at things like capacity, non-disclosure agreements, secrecy, length in business, and packaging capabilities. I know of one place here in Vegas that will do cookies, in different sizes, and will package several different ways. Not everyone will. Look for things like turn around time, lead time, graphics capabilities, and more. I'm sure I'm forgetting something, but if I think of it, see the comments.
Congrats!!!!!!! You've now made the next Tabasco, Auntie Ann's Pretzels, Chips Ahoy, Sriracha, Fresh Squeezed Juice conglomerate. I expect to see all of you on store shelves, and if this helped, send me some food. I'll eat it, or my girlfriend will.
Quesadillas are sandwiches. Fight me. See you in the comments.
submitted by Brianvegas to Entrepreneur [link] [comments]

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Mon 10.16.17 - **PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT**

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Mon 10.16.17

SEC DISCLAMIER: PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT

Morning Levels

Trading Update

Top Headlines for Monday

Catalysts – big events to watch over the coming months

Full catalyst list

  • Wed Oct 18 – Fed speakers: Dudley, Kaplan.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US housing starts for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US building permits for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US Beige Book. 2pmET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – earnings before the open: ABT, Akzo Nobel, ASML, MTB, MTG, NTRS, Reckitt Benckiser, SVU, USB
  • Wed Oct 18 – earnings after the close: AA, AXP, BDN, BHE, BXS, CCI, CCK, EBAY, GHL, HXL, KALU, LLNW, SLG, SLM, STLD, TCBI, URI.
  • Thurs Oct 19 – China Q3 GDP and Sept retail sales, IP, and FAI (Wed night/Thurs morning)
  • Thurs Oct 19 – US Leading Index for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Oct 19 – earnings before the open: ADS, BBT, BK, BX, DGX, DHR, DOV, GPC, KEY, Nestle, NUE, Pernod Ricard, Philips Lighting, PM, PPG, Publicis, RCI, Roche, SAP, SNA, SON, Thales, TRV, TSMC, TXT, Unilever, VZ, WBC, WGO.
  • Thurs Oct 19 – earnings after the close: ASB, ATHN, ETFC, ISRG, LHO, MXIM, NCR, PBCT, PFPT, PYPL, WDFC, WERN.
  • Fri Oct 20 – BOJ’s Kuroda speaks. 2:30amET.
  • Fri Oct 20 – US existing home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 20 – Yellen speaks to National Economists Club in Washington. 7:15pmET.
  • Fri Oct 20 – earnings before the open: Assa Abloy, BHGE, CFG, CLF, Daimler, DST, GE, GNTX, HON, InterContinental Hotels, KSU, MAN, PG, SLB, STI, SYF, TomTom, Volvo.
  • Mon Oct 23 – China Sept property prices (Sun night/Mon morning).
  • Mon Oct 23 – US Chicago Fed Activity Index for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 23 – earnings before the open: HAL, HAS, ITW, KMB, LII, Philips, STT, STX, VFC
  • Mon Oct 23 – earnings after the close: ARNC, CR, JBT, OI, ZION.
  • Tues Oct 24 – Eurozone flash PMIs for Oct. 4amET.
  • Tues Oct 24 – ECB bank lending survey. 4amET.
  • Tues Oct 24 – US flash PMIs for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Tues Oct 24 – earnings before the open: AMTD, Anglo American, BASF, BIIB, CAT, CLB, CNC, CVLT, ETR, Fiat Chrysler, FITB, GLW, GM, INFY, IPG, LLY, LMT, MAS, MCD, MMM, Novartis, PCAR, PHM, PNR, R, RF, SAH, SHW, SWK, UTX, WAT, WDR.
  • Tues Oct 24 – earnings after the close: AKAM, AMP, AXS, Canadian National Railway, CMG, COF, CYBE, DFS, ESRX, HLI, IRBT, IRM, MANH, NUVA, RGC, T, TSS, TXN.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US durable goods for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US FHFA home price index for Aug. 9amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US new home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – Bank of Canada rate decision. 10amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – Brazilian rate decision (after the close).
  • Wed Oct 25 – earnings before the open: ALK, ALLY, ANTM, Antofagasta, AOS, APH, BA, BAX, BTU, Capgemini, Dassault Systemes, DPS, FCX, FLIR, Fresnillo, HBAN, Heineken, IP, IR, KO, LEA, LH, Lloyds Banking Group, NDAQ, NSC, NYCB, OC, Peugeot, SIRI, SLAB, TMO, TUP, V, WBA, WEC, WYN.
  • Wed Oct 25 – earnings after the close: ABX, ACGL, AFL, AMGN, CA, CLGX, DLR, FFIV, FNF, FTI, KIM, LSTR, MC, MLNX, NOW, NXPI, ORLY, PKG, PLXS, RJF, SSNC, TSCO, TYL, UNM, VAR, WCN, XLNX.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – Riksbank decision. 3:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – ECB rate decision. 7:45amET press release, 8:30amET press conf.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US wholesale inventories for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US advance goods trade balance for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US pending home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – earnings before the open: ABB, ABX, Aixtron, ALLE, ALV, Anheuser Busch, APD, Bayer, BEN, BMS, BMY, BSX, BWA, CCMP, CELG, CHTR, CMCSA, CME, COP, Deutsche Bank, ENTG, EQT, EXLS, F, GNC, HLT, HSY, LUV, MMC, MKC, NEM, Nokia, OAK, ODFL, PX, Santander, Schneider Electric, SPGI, STM, TWTR, UNP, UPS, VC, VNTV, WM, XEL, XRX.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – earnings after the close: AIV, ATEN, CB, CDNS, CENX, CLS, EXPE, FLEX, FTNT, FTV, GILD, GOOG, HIG, INTC, LPLA, MAT, MSFT, NATI, PFG, PRO, SGEN, SIVB, SYK, VDSI, VRSN.
  • Fri Oct 27 – China Sept industrial profits (Thurs night/Fri morning).
  • Fri Oct 27 – US Q3 GDP, personal consumption, and core PCE for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Oct 27 – US Michigan Confidence numbers for Oct. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 27 – earnings before the open: B, MRK, PSX, SC, TRU, Volkswagen, WY, XOM.
  • Mon Oct 30 – US personal income/spending and PCE for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 30 – US Dallas Fed index for Oct. 10:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 30 – analyst meetings: CSX
  • Mon Oct 30 – earnings before the open: HSBC
  • Mon Oct 30 – earnings after the close: AVB, CGNX, RE, RTEC, VNO
  • Tues Oct 31 – BOJ rate decision (Mon night/Tues morning).
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Employment Cost Index for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Case-Shiller home price index for Aug. 9amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Chicago PMI for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Conference Board Sentiment readings for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – earnings before the open: ADM, AET, Airbus, AMT, Barclays, BNP, CMI, ECL, FIS, GGP, K, MA, OSK, PFE, XYL.
  • Tues Oct 31 – earnings after the close: APC, CHRW, CXO, PLT, WFT, X
  • Wed Nov 1 – US ADP jobs report for Oct. 8:15amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US Markit Manufacturing PMI for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US Manufacturing ISM for Oct. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US construction spending report for Sept. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US auto sales for Oct.
  • Wed Nov 1 – FOMC meeting decision. 2pmET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – earnings before the open: AGN, APO, CEVA, CLX, EL, GRMN, HFC, LFUS, Novo Nordisk, ORBK, Standard Chartered, TAP, TRI.
  • Wed Nov 1 – earnings after the close: ALL, BHF, BXP, CACI, CAVM, CSGS, EGOV, FB, LNC, MANT, MET, MUSA, OXY, PRU, QCOM, ULTI, XPO.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – BOE rate decision. 8amET.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – US nonfarm productivity and unit labor costs for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – earnings before the open: ADP, AN, BCE, CI, Credit Suisse, DISCA, H, ICE, LDOS, Royal Dutch Shell, Sanofi, Swiss Re, WRK.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – earnings after the close: AAPL, AIG, ATVI, CBS, CRUS, FLR, HLF, JCOM, RMAX, SBUX, UNIT.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US jobs report for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US trade balance for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US factory orders and durable goods orders for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US non-manufacturing ISM for Oct. 10amET.
  • Mon Nov 6 – Fed’s Dudley speaks at The Economist Club of New York.
  • Tues Nov 7 – RBA rate decision. Mon night/Tues morning.
  • Tues Nov 7 – US JOLTs jobs report for Sept. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 7 – US consumer credit for Sept. 3pmET.
  • Thurs Nov 9 – US wholesale trade sales/inventories for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 10 – US Michigan Confidence preliminary numbers for Nov. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 14 – US PPI for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US CPI for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US Empire Manufacturing for Nov. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US retail sales for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US business inventories for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US import prices for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US industrial production for Oct. 9:15amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US NAHB housing index for Nov. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 17 – US housing starts and building permits for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Nov 20 – US Leading Index for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 21 – US existing home sales for Oct. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – US durable goods for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – US final Michigan Confidence numbers for Nov. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – FOMC 11/1 meeting minutes. 2pmET.
  • Fri Nov 24 – US flash PMIs for Nov. 9:45amET.
J.P. Morgan Market Intelligence is a product of the Institutional Equities Sales and Trading desk of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and the intellectual property thereof. It is not a product of the Research Department and is intended for distribution to institutional and professional customers only and is not intended for retail customer use. It may not be reproduced, redistributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, without J.P. Morgan’s consent. Any unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.
submitted by SIThereAndThere to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Bi-Weekly Rational Feed

===Highly Recommended Articles:
Superintelligence Risk Project Update II by Jeff Kaufman - Jeff's thoughts and the sources he found most useful. Project is wrapping up in a few day. Topics: Technical Distance to AI. Most plausible scenarios of Superintelligence risk. OpenPhil's notes on how progress was potentially stalled in Cryonics and Nanotech.
Superintelligence Risk Project Update by Jeff Kaufman - Links to the three most informative readings on AI risk. Details on the large number of people Jeff has talked to. Three fundamental points of view on AI-Safety. Three Fundamental points of disagreement. An update on the original questions Jeff was trying to answer.
Podcast The World Needs Ai Researchers Heres How To Become One by 80,000 Hours - "OpenAI’s latest plans and research progress. Concrete Papers in AI Safety, which outlines five specific ways machine learning algorithms can act in dangerous ways their designers don’t intend - something OpenAI has to work to avoid. How listeners can best go about pursuing a career in machine learning and AI development themselves."
Radical Book Club The Decentralized Left by davidzhines (Status 451) - The nature of leftwing organizing and what righties can learn from it. An exposition of multiple books on radical left organization building. Major themes are "doing the work" and "decentralized leadership".
Study Of The Week To Remediate Or Not To Remediate by Freddie deBoer - Should low math proficiency students take remedial algebra or credit bearing statistics. The City University of New York ran an actual randomized study to test this. The study had pretty good controls. For example students were randomly assigned to three groups, participating professors taught one section of each group.
Kenneth Arrow On The Welfare Economics Of Medical Care A Critical Assessment by Artir (Nintil) - "Kenneth Arrow wrote a paper in 1963, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. This paper tends to appear in debates regarding whether healthcare can be left to the market (like bread), or if it should feature heavy state involvement. Here I explain what the paper says, and to what extent it is true."
Becoming Stronger Together by b4yes (lesswrong) - "About a year ago, a secret rationalist group was founded. This is a report of what the group did during that year."
The Destruction Of American Cuisine by Small Truths - America used to have a tremendous number of regional cuisines, most are dead. They were killed by supermarkets and frozen food. This has been costly both in terms of culture and health (antibiotic resistance, crop monoculture risk)
===Scott:
Targeting Meritocracy by Scott Alexander - Education and merit are different. Programming is one of the last meritocracies, this lets disadvantaged people get into the field. If a job is high impact we want to hire on merit. The original, literal meaning of meritocracy is important.
Classified Thread 2 Best In Classified by Scott Alexander - Scott is promoting a project to accelerate the trend of rationalists living near each other. There are four houses available for rent near Ward Street in Berkeley. Ward street is currently the rationalist hub in the Bay. Commenters can advertise other projects and services.
Url Of Sandwich by Scott Alexander - Standard links post, somewhat longer than usual.
Opec Thread by Scott Alexander - Bi-weekly open thread. Update on Scott and Katja's travels. Salt Lake City Meetup highlight. Topher Brennan is running for Senate.
Can We Link Perception And Cognition by Scott Alexander - SSC survey optical illusions. "So there seems to be a picture where high rates of perceptual ambiguity are linked to being weirder and (sometimes, in a very weak statistical way) lower-functioning." Speculation about fundamental connections between perception and cognitive style. Ideas for further research.
Change Minds Or Drive Turnout by Scott Alexander - Extreme candidates lower turnout among their own party. Is base turnout really the only thing that matters? Lots of quotes from studies.
===Rationalist:
Learning From Past Experiences by mindlevelup - "This is about finding ways to quickly learn from past experiences to inform future actions. We briefly touch upon different learning models." Model-based and Model-Free reinforcement learning. Practical advice and examples.
How Long Has Civilization Been Going by Elo (BearLamp) - Human agricultural society is only 342-1000 generations old. "Or when you are 24 years old you have lived one day for every year humans have had written records." Human civilization is only a few hundred lifetimes old.
Choices Are Bad by Zvi Moshowitz - Choices reduce perceived value. Choices require time and energy. Making someone choose is imposing a real cost.
Erisology Of Self And Will: The Gulf by Everything Studies - "Part 4 will discuss some scientific disciplines with bearing on the self, and how their results are interpreted differently by the traditional paradigm vs. the scientific."
Philosophy Vs Duck Tests by Robin Hanson - Focusing on deep structure vs adding up weak cues. If it looks like an x... More discussion of whether most people will consider ems people and/or conscious.
Knowing How To Define by AellaGirl - "These are three ways in which a word can be ‘defined’ – the role it plays in the world around it (the up-definition), synonyms (lateral-definition), and the parts which construct the thing (down-definition)." Applications to morality and free-will.
Change Is Bad by Zvi Moshowitz - "Change space, like mind space, is deep and wide. Friendly change space isn’t quite to change space what friendly mind space is to mind space, but before you apply any filters of common sense, it’s remarkably close." A long list of conditions that mean change has lower expected value. Why we still need to make changes. Keep your eyes open.
Meditation Insights Suffering And Pleasure Are Intrinsically Bound Together by Kaj Sotala - The concrete goal of meditation is to train your peripheral awareness. Much suffering comes from false promises of pleasure. Procrastinating to play a videogame won't actually make you feel better. Temptation losses its power once you truly see the temptations for what they truly are.
Be My Neighbor by Katja Grace - Katja lives in a rationalist house on ward street in Berkeley and its great. The next step up is a rationalist neighborhood. Katja is promoting the same four houses as Scott. Be her neighbor?
What Value Subagents by G Gordan (Map and Territory) - Splitting the mind into subagents is a common rationalist model (links to Alicorn, Briene Yudkowsky, etc). However the author preferred model is a single process with inconsistent preferences. Freud. System 1 and System 2. The rider and the Elephant become one. Subagents as masks. Subagents as epicycles.
The Order Of The Soul by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - The philosophy of accepting things vs the impulse to reshape them. Many philosophical and psychological models split the soul into three. Internalized authority vs seeing the deep structure of moral reality. In some sense math is the easiest thing in the world to learn. School poisons the enjoyment of rational thought. Lockhart's lament. Feynman. Eichmann and thinking structurally.
Aliens Merely Sleeping by Tyler Cowen - The universe is currently too hot for artificial life to be productive. Advanced civilizations might be freezing themselves until the universe cools. "They could achieve up to 1030 times more than if done today" [short]
Book Reviews by Torello (lesswrong) - Rationalist Adjacent. Each book has an interesting 'ideas per page' rating. Homo Deus, Sapiens, Super-intelligence, Surfaces and Essences, What Technology Wants, Inside Jokes, A Skeptic's Guide to the Mind.
Geometers Scribes Structure Intelligence by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - "How does spatial reasoning lead to formal, logical reasoning?" Fluid and crystalized intelligence. Some history of Philosophy. How social dynamics lead to the evolution of reasoning. Talmudic and Western law, and their oddities. Universal Grammar and connecting with the divine. FizzBuzz.
High Dimensional Societies by Robin Hanson - In high dimensional space the distance between points varies less. What implications does this have for 'spatial' social science models (ex analogues of 1D spectrums and 2D graphs).
Feelings In The Map by Elo (BearLamp) - Confusion is not a property of the external world. The same holds for many emotions. Non-violent communication and speaking from your own perspective.
Lesswrong Is Not About Forum Software by enye-word (lesswrong) - The best way to increase activity on lesswrong is to get back the top posters, especially Scott and Eliezer.
Explication by mindlevelup - "This essay is about explication, the notion of making things specific. I give some examples involving Next Actions and systematization. This might also just be obvious to many people. Part of it is also a rehash of Act Into Uncertainty. Ultimately, explication is about changing yourself."
Concrete Instructions by Elo (BearLamp) - "The objective test of whether the description is concrete is whether the description can be followed by an anonymous person to produce the same experience." Some examples including the 'paper folding game'.
Human Seems Low Dimensional by Robin Hanson - 'Humanness' seems to be a one dimensional variable. Hence people are likely to consider ems conscious and worthy of decent treatment since ems are human-like on many important factors. Some discussion of a study where people rated how human-like various entities were.
Erisology Of Self And Will: A Natural Offering by Everything Studies - A description of naturalism and it relation to science. Daniel Dennet. Many philosophers are still dualists about the self. The self as a composite. Freedom as emergent.
The Hungry Brain by Bayesian Investor - A short review that focuses on the basics of Guynet's ideas and meta-discussion of why Guynet included so much neuroscience. "Guyenet provides fairly convincing evidence that it’s simple to achieve a healthy weight while feeling full. (E.g. the 20 potatoes a day diet)."
Boost From The Best by Robin Hanson - [Age of Em] How many standard deviations above the mean will be the best em be? How much better will they be than the second best em? How much of a wage/leisure premium will the best em receive.
Becoming Stronger Together by b4yes (lesswrong) - "About a year ago, a secret rationalist group was founded. This is a report of what the group did during that year."
In Praise Of Fake Frameworks by Valentine (lesswrong) - "I use a lot of fake frameworks — that is, ways of seeing the world that are probably or obviously wrong in some important way. I think this is an important skill. There are obvious pitfalls, but I think the advantages are more than worth it. In fact, I think the "pitfalls" can even sometimes be epistemically useful."
Letter To Future Layperson by Sailor Vulcan (BYS) - A letter from someone in our age to someone post singularity. Description of the hardships and terrors of pre-singularity life. Emotional and poetic. ~5K words.
===AI:
Conversation With An Ai Researcher by Jeff Kaufman - The anonymous researcher thinks AI progress is almost entirely driven by hardware and data. Back propagation has existed for a long time. Go would have taken at least 10 more years if go-aI work had remained constrained by academic budgets.
Openai Baselines PPO by Open Ai - "We’re releasing a new class of reinforcement learning algorithms, Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), which perform comparably or better than state-of-the-art approaches while being much simpler to implement and tune. PPO has become the default reinforcement learning algorithm at OpenAI because of its ease of use and good performance."
Superintelligence Risk Project Update II by Jeff Kaufman - Jeff's thoughts and the sources he found most useful. Project is wrapping up in a few day. Topics: Technical Distance to AI. Most plausible scenarios of Superintelligence risk. OpenPhil's notes on how progress was potentially stalled in Cryonics and Nanotech.
Real Debate Robots Education by Tyler Cowen - Robots are already becoming part of the classroom. K-12 is an artificially creation anyway. Robots can help autistic or disabled children. Children sometimes trust robots too much.
Robust Adversarial Inputs by Open Ai - "We’ve created images that reliably fool neural network classifiers when viewed from varied scales and perspectives. This challenges a claim from last week that self-driving cars would be hard to trick maliciously since they capture images from multiple scales, angles, perspectives, and the like."
What Is Overfitting Exactly by Andrew Gelman - "If your model is correct, “overfitting” is impossible. In its usual form, “overfitting” comes from using too weak of a prior distribution."
Conversation With Bryce Wiedenbeck by Jeff Kaufman - "AGI is possible, it could be a serious problem, but we can't productively work on it now." AGI will look very different from current technologies. Utility functions are a poor model of human behavior.
Examples Of Superintelligence Risk by Jeff Kaufman - A series of extended quotes describing ways AI with innocent seeming goals can destroy the world. Authors: Nick Bostrom, Eliezer (and collaborators), Luke M, 80K hours, Tim Urban. Jeff finds them unpersuasive and asks for better ones. Lots of interesting comments. Eleizer himself comments describing how 'paperclip maximizers' might realistically occur.
Superintelligence Risk Project Update by Jeff Kaufman - Links to the three most informative readings on AI risk. Details on the large number of people Jeff has talked to. Three fundamental points of view on AI-Safety. Three Fundamental points of disagreement. An update on the original questions Jeff was trying to answer.
Conversation With Michael Littman by Jeff Kaufman - CS Professor at Brown's opinions: Deep Learning is surprisingly brittle in his experience. General Intelligence will require large fundamental advances. The AI risk community isn't testing their ideas so they probably aren't making real progress.
===EA:
EAGX Relaunch by Roxanne_Heston (EA forum) - The EA global satellite EAGA-X conferences have been low activity. Changes: More funding and flexibility. Standardized formats. Fewer groups approved. Stipends to primary organizers.
Uncertainty Smoothes Out Differences In Impact by The Foundational Research Institute - Many inside view evaluations conclude that one intervention is orders of magnitude more effective than another. Uncertainty significantly reduces these ratios.
Autonomy: A Search For A Measure Will Pearson (EA forum) - "I shall introduce a relatively formal measure of autonomy, based on the intuition that it is the ability to do things by yourself with what you have. The measure introduced allows you to move from less to more autonomy, without being black and white about it. Then I shall talk about how increasing autonomy fits in with the values of movements such as poverty reduction, ai risk reduction and the reduction of suffering."
Eight media articles on GiveDirectly, Cash Transers and Basic Income.- A world where 8 men own as much wealth as 3.6 billion people by GiveDirectly -
More Giving Vs Doing by Jeff Kaufman - EA is moving far more money than it used to and the ramp up will continue. This means direct work has become relatively more valuable. Nonetheless giving money is still useful, capacity isn't being filled. Jeff plans on earning to give based on his personal constraints.
Why I Think The Foundational Research Institute by Mike Johnson (EA forum) - A description of the FRI. Good things about FRI. FRI's research framework and why the author is worried. Eight long objections. TLDR: "functionalism ("consciousness is the sum-total of the functional properties of our brains") sounds a lot better than it actually turns out to be in practice. In particular, functionalism makes it impossible to define ethics & suffering in a way that can mediate disagreements."
Tranquilism by The Foundational Research Institute - A paper arguing that reducing suffering is more important than promoting happiness. Axiology. Non-consciousness. Common Objections. Conclusion.
An Argument For Why The Future May Be Good by Ben West (EA forum) - Factory farming shows that humans are deeply cruel. Technology enabled this cruelty, perhaps the future will be even darker. Counterargument: Humans are lazy, not evil. Humans as a group will spend at least small amounts altruistically. In the future the cost of reducing suffering will go down low enough that suffering will be rare or non-existent.
Arguments Moral Advocacy by The Foundational Research Institute - "What does moral advocacy look like in practice? Which values should we spread, and how? How effective is moral advocacy compared to other interventions such as directly influencing new technologies? What are the most important arguments for and against focusing on moral advocacy?"
An Argument For Broad And Inclusive by Kaj Sotala (EA forum) - "I argue for a very broad, inclusive EA, based on the premise that the culture of a region is more important than any specific group within that region... As a concrete strategy, I propose a division into low-level and high-level EA"
Not Everybody wants a Goat by GiveDirectly - Eight links on GiveDirectly, Cash Transfers, Effective Altruism and Basic Income.
Mid Year Update by The GiveWell Blog - Encouraging more charities to apply. More research of potential interventions. Short operations recap. GiveWell is focusing more on outreach.
===Politics and Economics:
College Tuition by Tom Bartleby - Sticker prices for college have gone up 15K in twenty years, but the average actual cost has only gone up 2.5K. High prices are almost compensated by high aid. Advantage: more equitable access to education. Disadvantages: Not everyone knows about the aid, financial aid is large enough it can seriously distort family financial decisions.
War Of Wages Part 1 Apples And Walmarts by Jacob Falkovich (Put A Number On It!) - The Author thinks minimum wage hurts the poor. Walmart can't afford higher wages. Copenhagan Interpretation of Ethics: Walmart helps the poor and gets blamed, Apple does nothing for the poor but avoids blame.
Links 10 by Artir (Nintil) - Tons of links. Economics, Psychology, AI, Philosophy, Misc.
Pretend Ask Answer by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - A short dialogue about Patriarchy and the meaning of oppression. Defensive actions are often a response to bad faith from the other side. Its not ok to explicitly say you think your partner is arguing in bad faith.
Cultural Studies Ironically Is Something Of A Colonizer by Freddie deBoer - An origin story for Writing Studies. The fields initial methodological diversity. Cultural studies took over the field, empirical work has been pushed out. Evidence that some cultural studies professors really do believe its fundamentally bigoted to do science and empirical research endangers marginalized students. The field has become insular.
The Dark Arts Examples From The Harris Adams Debate by Stabilizer (lesswrong) - The author accuses Scott Adams of using various dark Arts: Changing the subject, Motte-and-bailey, Euphemisation, Diagnosis, Excusing, Cherry-picking evidence.
Study Of The Week Modest But Real Benefits From Lead Exposure Interventions by Freddie deBoer - Freddie reviews a survey he found via SSC. The study had very good controls. Methodology is explained and key graphs are posted and discussed. Scott and Freddie seem to agree on the facts but have a different opinion on how large to consider the effects.
Descriptive And Prescriptive Standards by Simon Penner (Status 451) - Leadership means winning the Keynesian Beauty Contest. Public opinion doesn't exist as a stable reality. Prescribing public opinion. Dangers of social reform and leaders twisting the facts to promote noble outcomes.
A Taylorism For All Seasons by Lou (sam[]zdat) - "Christopher Lasch – The Culture of Narcissism, part 1/X, current essay being more of an overview." A Masquerade where you must act out the mask you choose.
Mechanism Agnostic Low Plasticity Educational Realism by Freddie deBoer - Freddie's educational philosophy. People sort into persistent academic strata. Educational attainment is heavily determined by factors outside of school's control. The mechanism differences in academic ability is unknown. Social and political implications.
Kin Aesthetics Excommunicate Me From The Church Of Social Justice by Frances Lee - A SJ-insider's critical opinion of SJ. Fear of being impure. Original Sin. Reproducing colonial structures of power and domination within social justice. Everyday Feminism's belittling articles. More humility. Bringing humanity to everyone, even those who have been inhumane.
Study Of The Week To Remediate Or Not To Remediate by Freddie deBoer - Should low math proficiency students take remedial algebra or credit bearing statistics. The City University of New York ran an actual randomized study to test this. The study had pretty good controls. For example students were randomly assigned to three groups, participating professors taught one section of each group.
Should We Build Lots More Housing In San Francisco: Three Reasons People Disagree by Julia Galef - For each of the three reasons Julia describes multiple sub-reasons. More housing might not lower prices much. More housing won't help the poor. NIMBY objections might be legitimate.
Kenneth Arrow On The Welfare Economics Of Medical Care A Critical Assessment by Artir (Nintil) - "Kenneth Arrow wrote a paper in 1963, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. This paper tends to appear in debates regarding whether healthcare can be left to the market (like bread), or if it should feature heavy state involvement. Here I explain what the paper says, and to what extent it is true."
Thoughts On Doxxing by Ozy (Thing of Things) - CNN found the identity of the guy who made the video of Trump beating up CNN. They implied they would dox him if he continued being racist. Is doxxing him ok? What about doxxing someone who runs jailbait? Ozy discusses the practical effect of doxxing and unleashing hate mobs.
On The Seattle Minimum Wage Study Part 2 by Zvi Moshowitz - Several relevant links are included. Seattle's economic boom and worker composition changes are important factors. Zvi dives deep into the numbers and tries to resolve an apparent contradiction.
Radical Book Club The Decentralized Left by davidzhines (Status 451) - The nature of leftwing organizing and what righties can learn from it. An exposition of multiple books on radical left organization building. Major themes are "doing the work" and "decentralized leadership".
On The Seattle Minimum Wage Study Part 1 by Zvi Moshowitz - The claimed effect sizes are huge. Zvi's priors about the minimum wage. Detailed description of some of the paper's methods and how it handle potential issues. Discussion of the raw data. More to come in part 2.
===Misc:
Childcare II by Jeff Kaufman - A timeline of childcare for Jeff's two children. Methods: Staying at home, Daycare, Au pair, Nanny.
Easier Chess Problem by protokol2020 - How many pieces do you need to capture a black queen?
Book Review Mathematics For Computer Science by richard_reitz (lesswrong) - Why the text should be in the MIRI research guide. Intro. Prereqs. Detailed comparisons to similar texts. Complaints.
Information is Physical by Scott Aaronson - Is information is physical a contentful expression? Why 'physics is information' is tautological. A proposed definition. Double slit experiment. Observation in Quantum Mechanics. Information takes up a minimum amount of space. Entropy. Information has nowhere to go.
Book Review Working Effectively With Legacy Code By Michael C Feathers by Eli Bendersky - To improve code we must refactor, to refactor we have to test, making code testable may take heroic efforts. "The techniques described by the author are as terrible as the code they're up against."
The Ominouslier Roar Of The Bitcoin Wave by Artem and Venkat (ribbonfarm) - A video visualizing and audiolizing the bitcoin blockchain. A related dialogue.
From Monkey Neurons To The Meta Brain by Hal Morris (ribbonfarm) - Neurons that only fire in response to Jennifer Anniston. Mirror Neurons. Theory of Mind. The path from copying movement to human-level empathy. Infant development. Dreams as social simulator. Communicating with our models of other people. He rapidly accelerating and dangerous future. We need to keep our mind open to possibilities.
Newtonism Question by protokol2020 - Balancing Forces. Gravity problem.
Short Interview Writing by Tyler Cowen - Tyler Cowen's writing habits. Many concrete details such as when he writes and what program he uses. Some more general thoughts on writing such as Tyler's surprising answer to which are his favorite books on writing.
Unexpected by protokol2020 - Discussion of gaps between primes. "Say, that you have just sailed across some recordly wide composite lake and you are on a prime island again. What can you expect, how much wider will the next record lake be?"
Interacting With A Long Running Child Process In Python by Eli Bendersky - Using the subprocess module to run an http server. Solutions and analysis of common use cases. Lots of code.
4d Mate Problem by protokol2020 - How many queens do you need to get a checkmate in 4D chess.
The Destruction Of American Cuisine by Small Truths - America used to have a tremendous number of regional cuisines, most are dead. They were killed by supermarkets and frozen food. This has been costly both in terms of culture and health (antibiotic resistance, crop monoculture risk)
===Podcast:
Sally Satel On Organ Donation by EconTalk - "The challenges of increasing the supply of donated organs for transplantation and ways that public policy might increase the supply." Tax Credits. The ethics of donor compensation.
Podcast The World Needs Ai Researchers Heres How To Become One by 80,000 Hours - "OpenAI’s latest plans and research progress. Concrete Papers in AI Safety, which outlines five specific ways machine learning algorithms can act in dangerous ways their designers don’t intend – something OpenAI has to work to avoid. How listeners can best go about pursuing a career in machine learning and AI development themselves."
88 Must We Accept A Nuclear North Korea by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Mark Bowden and the problem of a nuclear-armed North Korea."
Triggered by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Sam Harris and Scott Adams debate the character and competence of President Trump."
Conversation Atul Gawande by Tyler Cowen - The marginal value of health care, AI progress in medicine, fear of genetic engineering, whether the checklist method applies to marriage, FDA regulation, surgical regulation, Michael Crichton and Stevie Wonder, wearables, what makes him weep, Knausgaard and Ferrante, why surgeons leave sponges in patients.
Nneka Jones Tapia by The Ezra Klein Show - The first psychologist to run a prison. 30% of inmates have diagnosed mental health problems. Mental heath view of the penal system, balancing punishment and treatment, responsibility versus mental instability, the tension between what we use jail for and what we should use jail for.
Tamar Haspel by EconTalk - "Why technology helps make some foods inexpensive, how animals are treated, the health of the honey bee, and whether eggs from your backyard taste any better than eggs at the grocery."
From Cells To Cities by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Biological and social systems scale, the significance of fractals, the prospects of radically extending human life, the concept of “emergence” in complex systems, the importance of cities, the necessity for continuous innovation"
Inside The World Of Supertraining: Mark Bell by Tim Feriss - "Mark’s most important lessons for building strength. How to avoid injury and breakdown. Lesser-known training techniques that nearly everyone overlooks. How Mark became a millionaire by offering his gym memberships for free."
Eddie Izzard by The Ezra Klein Show - 27 marathons in 27 days, process for writing jokes, why he wants to run for parliament, inspiration from Al Franken's, borrowing confidence from his future self. What he learned as a street performer, routines are based on history and anthropology, World War I, 'cake or death?'. His gender identity, and how he integrated it into his act early on, etc.
Martha Nussbaum by EconTalk - "The tension between acquiring power and living a life of virtue. Topics discussed include Hamilton's relationship with Aaron Burr, Burr's complicated historical legacy, and the role of the humanities in our lives."
Rs 188 Robert Kurzban On Being Strategically Wrong by Rationally Speaking - Why Everyone (Else) is a Hypocrite." The "modular mind" hypothesis, and how it explains hypocrisy, self-deception, and other seemingly irrational features of human nature.
submitted by deluks917_ to slatestarcodex [link] [comments]

This is the early days of Cryptocurrency. We are still in the lunatic fringe, and it is time to dive in

Homepage Cryptocurrency Citizen Go to the profile of Leon Gaban Leon Gaban FullStack Developer, Cryptocurrency Investor & Global Citizen Aug 28, 2017 This is the early days of Cryptocurrency. We are still in the lunatic fringe, and it is time to dive in. You may have seen this graphic before. It’s the technology adoption curve. Technology adoption curve New technology that eventually becomes successfully adopted generally follows this bell curve. With inventors and innovators starting the trend, early adopters following next. Then the early majority, late majority and finally the laggards are those who have to upgrade because the market no longer produces or sells what they used to have. There is a missing piece here and it is within the 2.5% innovators slice. It is the lunatic fringe, the very first people to start using the new technology. The lunatic fringe is what gets the word out to the early adopters. The lunatics are ones that prove its use and can’t shut up about it (◕‿◕). And that is us, me writing this, you reading this. The previous impactful major adoption Tim Berners Lee Tim Berners Lee worked on a project called the World Wide Web, with its first trial runs in CERN laboratories in Switzerland in December 1990. [1] In 1991 the browser and web server software had been created. AOL was one of the first companies launched that year. By the end of 1992, 26 websites had been created. In April of 1993 CERN directors declared that WWW technology would be free to be used by anyone, with no fees payable to CERN. Towards the end of 1994 there were a million browser copies in use. Amazon was created in 1994 to just sell books. However, they saw that shopping online was going to be the way of the future. Soon after in the mid 90s search engines came about and Google soon followed. Adoption increase a thousand fold. When 1998 came around hundreds of thousands of commercial websites existed and the early adopters started to see how the internet was going to disrupt many existing industries. That was the year my favorite online game StarCraft was launched as well ♥. To put things in a fresher perspective, Facebook launched in 2004 and Snapchat in 2011. All the adoption and commerce are impressive, but the real significant impact of the Internet was that it ushered in the age of information. For the first time in human history we could reach out and talk and see each other globally. All our knowledge could be stored online forever. People can easily access and learn new things everyday about every subject possible. Free speech could be broadcasted around the world and we could respond quicker to disasters and atrocities. Now, we collectively could not imagine a world without the Internet. A new age is beginning There is a massive mostly unseen tsunami of technological disruption forming at the moment, and it’s coming in the form of Cryptocurrencies with Bitcoin being the first. You can also call this new wave, the Internet of money. Right now, we are kind of in the 1993–1994 creation period during the early Internet days. The Facebook and Twitter of Cryptocurrency are still a decade away. However, with the rate of innovation and adoption increasing, it is probably closer to 3–5 years away. Thousands of coins[2] and hundreds of new companies are being spawned all with different blockchains or tokens, working on solutions to solve new problems or bring current services into a brand new decentralized world. We are nowhere near the early adoption majority phase of the curve yet. It is still really hard to use Cryptocurrency. If you currently have a diverse portfolio, the safest way to hold your assets are in multiple wallets, some web-based, some in desktop and mobile apps, and some even in hardware wallets. You have to secure many of them with 2-factor authentication, and remember to save your private keys and 24-word phrases in a safe yet easy to access location. For a quick example, let’s take IOTA, which by the way is the only Cryptocurrency without a blockchain (it uses a technology/network called The Tangle to handle its transactions). In order to store IOTA you have to first download their wallet, then you have to find a safe to use seed generator, then download it (I used the JavaScript version). Next you have to run a few commands in a terminal window to create your private seed. Now other digital wallets are a bit easier to use, but they all add to the complexity in investing in Cryptocurrencies. When sending out the first emails back during the early Internet, you not only had to know a bit of code to create that email, but it then took about 10 minutes to send it. Now a tweet sent across the globe in an instant can start a revolution. Here is another chart we should take a look at. Above is the technology adoption rate graph, where we can see how long it took various technologies to get widely adopted. Electricity and the telephone took several decades before reaching 60% adoption. And as we near the digital age we see adoption skyrocket, especially with each generation getting up to speed faster than the last. Kids born now are digital era natives, these kids will be the first generation bringing ownership of automated cars into the majority. They will also be the first generation completely using cryptocurrencies. The adoption rate of money. Looking back at the previous revolutions in money, in the 16th century there was a radical proposal to replace gold with gold certificates written on paper. Andreas Antonopoulos (A technologist and Bitcoin Jesus) from this Bitcoin video here says, “If you think people find Bitcoin weird, imagine a time when they told them gold is no longer the money, bits of paper are… they were like you gotta be kidding me. So that idea was so radical, it took 400 years before it became broadly deployed in mainstream society.” — Andreas Antonopoulus However let’s go much further back than that. From about 100 thousand years ago to about 20 thousand years ago, there was no form of money. Anthropologists have shown that no tribe or civilization based their trade on barter. [3] Here is a great talk about money myths and bitcoin from Wences Casares (CEO of Xapo). Early tribes relied on an inefficient subjective type of ledger. They needed to remember who owed them what. If you slayed a woolly mammoth and some of your friends asked for some meat, you’d need to remember how much meat you gave to who, so later you can could ask for similar favors. However, this was a system that worked for a very long time, longer than any other form of trade and commerce. Eventually, certain persons in a tribe would come up with the idea of using objects such as shells, beads, stones as an objective ledger to keep track of debt within a tribe. Every tribe across the globe had their own objective ledgers. As human populations grew and created larger societies, they started to bump up next to each other and this system started to break down. Salt would work for one tribe, but not another. Shells would be meaningless to non-coastal peoples, etc. This is when humans had to find something in common to use as money. “The anthropologist say that if you describe for them an environment in detail they can predict what is going to emerge as money, because it’s always something that has the 6 characteristics of money. Of which most important is something that is scarce, something divisible, transportable, durable, recognizable and fungible. For each early tribe, their form of money had to varying degrees all these qualities. And when this system broke down 5 thousands of years ago what emerged that had all these qualities, not for one particular tribe but universally was gold” — Wences Casares A myth people believe about money is that because it is an asset it has intrinsic value. Money does not possess intrinsic value. Money is just a ledger to keep track of debt. Whatever form of money exists, we give it value because of its utility as a ledger. Gold does not have value because you can make a chair or jewelry out of it, the chair is valuable because it’s made out of gold which is scarce. Gold had been the “Gold standard” for the last 5 thousand years. And until Bitcoin and the blockchain, gold had made for the best form of a ledger we have found. The 6 characteristics of money Scarcity Divisible Transportable Durable Recognizable Fungible Bitcoin is orders of magnitude better and superior than Gold in every single characteristic of money. It is scarcer (Only 21 million will ever exist), divisible up to a 100th million, transportable like a digital file, and more durable since you cannot destroy a Bitcoin. It’s cryptographically recognizable and fungible. The same characteristics exist for practically every cryptocurrency out there as well. Some are inflationary based like government issued fiat. Some are deflationary with a set amount. And a multitude of others have different attributes and use cases. With IOTA it’s for machine to machine transactions for the Internet of Things, Ethereum, NEO and Lisk are platforms for creating decentralized applications in this new space. ZCash and Monero have extreme privacy. District0x tokens are for voting and the list goes on. All these cryptos have created a new asset class as well as usher in the new digital revolution of money. Each of these tokens and their blockchain ledgers have speculative value and it is time to jump in and join us in the lunatic fringe. It is a fun time now, right before the early adoption really starts. Welcome to the Internet of money.
submitted by FALCONFUN to u/FALCONFUN [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: CanadaPolitics posts from 2017-11-17 to 2017-12-14 21:55 PDT

Period: 26.92 days
Submissions Comments
Total 941 21286
Rate (per day) 34.95 762.33
Unique Redditors 266 2329
Combined Score 32739 150061

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 3428 points, 60 submissions: _Minor_Annoyance
    1. Poll suggests majority of Canadians backs outright ban on guns in urban areas (395 points, 1213 comments)
    2. Ottawa to build 100,000 new affordable units, recognize housing as 'fundamental right ' (345 points, 113 comments)
    3. Justin Trudeau Is ‘Very Concerned’ With FCC’s Plan to Roll Back Net Neutrality (294 points, 79 comments)
    4. Harper Government Identified ‘Mental Health Issues’ as a Root Cause of Terrorism, Secret Documents Show (265 points, 100 comments)
    5. Conservatives accused of free speech double standard after Catholic university blocks abortion film (216 points, 143 comments)
    6. Federal government proposes changes designed to drop cost of patented drugs (173 points, 40 comments)
    7. Andrew Coyne: Tories can stop blowing smoke because there’s nothing suspicious about Morneau share selloff (144 points, 100 comments)
    8. Trudeau government wants to 'demystify' G7 summit by involving Canadians (132 points, 37 comments)
    9. Canadian workforce is more educated and sitting in traffic longer than ever before: 2016 census (104 points, 15 comments)
    10. Conservative party leadership advisor helped create anti-Islam organization (90 points, 54 comments)
  2. 1991 points, 109 submissions: idspispopd
    1. Video of starving polar bear in Canada's Arctic re-ignites conversations about climate change (209 points, 131 comments)
    2. Proportional Representation Will Provide Balance, Not Extremism (199 points, 145 comments)
    3. Manitoba gets failing grade for 'nightmare' rates of child poverty (124 points, 25 comments)
    4. N.W.T. residents can now choose 'X' as gender on IDs (87 points, 36 comments)
    5. Nunavut creates country food safety guidelines to boost traditional menus across territory (87 points, 40 comments)
    6. 'We want Nunavut to shine:' Territory's new premier looks to the future (82 points, 5 comments)
    7. B.C.’s upcoming referendum on electoral reform will stand, Attorney-General says (82 points, 50 comments)
    8. Jagmeet Singh takes shot at Jason Kenney in swing through Alberta (62 points, 28 comments)
    9. Uniformed police won’t be allowed to march in Vancouver’s Pride Parade (56 points, 85 comments)
    10. Thawing permafrost causes $51M in damages every year to N.W.T. public infrastructure: study (48 points, 4 comments)
  3. 1548 points, 14 submissions: steadly
    1. This Conservative Politician Said Weed Is Just As Deadly as Fentanyl (492 points, 176 comments)
    2. Prime Minister announces nomination of the Honourable Sheilah L. Martin to the Supreme Court of Canada (283 points, 146 comments)
    3. Liberals 41, Conservatives 30, NDP 18, Green 7 : Nanos (147 points, 79 comments)
    4. Bill Morneau says Ottawa has no plans for a Netflix tax (132 points, 46 comments)
    5. Prime Minister names the Honourable Richard Wagner as new Chief Justice of Canada (113 points, 48 comments)
    6. Singh launched NDP byelection campaign in wrong Scarborough riding (113 points, 75 comments)
    7. Trudeau government sets new record for vacant appointments (62 points, 23 comments)
    8. Prime Minister announces the appointment of two new Senators (53 points, 42 comments)
    9. Cabinet ministers don't resign nowadays, they just linger and then get shuffled (39 points, 1 comment)
    10. $100 million for gay purge victims as PM apologizes for LGBTQ discrimination (33 points, 6 comments)
  4. 1235 points, 19 submissions: MethoxyEthane
    1. Federal marijuana legislation passed third reading in the House of Commons, headed for the Senate (215 points, 96 comments)
    2. Trudeau says Canadians need a 'mindset change' to tackle sexual assault (191 points, 85 comments)
    3. PEI Green Party win their second seat in the Charlottetown-Parkdale provincial by-election (109 points, 28 comments)
    4. Ontario PC leader Patrick Brown releases full platform 6 months ahead of provincial campaign (104 points, 137 comments)
    5. Speaker kicks Tory MP Blake Richards out of Question Period (95 points, 31 comments)
    6. Premier Kathleen Wynne sues opposition leader Patrick Brown for defamation (90 points, 56 comments)
    7. Trudeau set to name new judge to Supreme Court of Canada on Wednesday morning (87 points, 31 comments)
    8. Kathleen Wynne calls $12B in savings in PC platform ‘ridiculous’ (83 points, 68 comments)
    9. Liberal government backs bill that demands full implementation of UN Indigenous rights declaration (55 points, 41 comments)
    10. December 11 By-Election Discussion Thread (49 points, 322 comments)
  5. 1094 points, 5 submissions: StrudleNudle
    1. Comparing marijuana to fentanyl is social conservatism without a clue: Opinion (723 points, 115 comments)
    2. Liberals rebound in polls, Nanos says women giving Grits lead over Conservatives - The Hill Times (161 points, 185 comments)
    3. Liberals 40, Conservatives 31, NDP 17, Green 7: Nanos (112 points, 116 comments)
    4. 'Charterpedia' launched by the DOJ today. Summarizes every Charter right and it's completely noted up. (87 points, 21 comments)
    5. Tory pit bull Poilievre looks for ‘vulnerability’ in attacks on Morneau (11 points, 13 comments)
  6. 894 points, 34 submissions: uadoption
    1. Conservative comparison of pot to fentanyl 'irresponsible': Health minister (223 points, 29 comments)
    2. Canada vows to aggressively defend lumber sector after duties confirmed by U.S. (207 points, 43 comments)
    3. ‘Keep our great country safe from all the weed,’ Conservative critic pleads in Parliament poem (115 points, 107 comments)
    4. Driverless trucks are coming to Canada and the impact will be profound (108 points, 172 comments)
    5. The secret of happiness for Quebec anglos (26 points, 83 comments)
    6. Making the link between animal and human abuse (23 points, 9 comments)
    7. Bell's 'Let's Talk' campaign rings hollow for employees suffering panic attacks, vomiting and anxiety (16 points, 7 comments)
    8. Watch China's efforts to influence as Canada pursues trade, says former envoy (15 points, 0 comments)
    9. Nearly half of illegal border-crossers into Canada are from Haiti (14 points, 7 comments)
    10. Refugee system isn't for those seeking better economic life: Trudeau (14 points, 2 comments)
  7. 891 points, 30 submissions: OrzBlueFog
    1. Maxime Bernier reiterates opposition to Net Neutrality (352 points, 173 comments)
    2. Unionized Halifax Shipyard workers vote 99% in favour of strike mandate [NS] (204 points, 55 comments)
    3. Nova Scotia announces pot will be sold through NSLC and online [NS] (72 points, 13 comments)
    4. Feds willing to give more pot tax revenue to provinces to help municipalities (60 points, 15 comments)
    5. Live at a tony address? Postal Code Project puts Canada's richest neighbourhoods in taxman's crosshairs (26 points, 12 comments)
    6. [Meta] Comment sort order - controversial? (26 points, 29 comments)
    7. Child Advocate wins battle for mandatory reporting of deaths, critical injuries [NL] (15 points, 0 comments)
    8. Nova Scotia community hopes rocket launch site will revitalize economy [NS] (13 points, 5 comments)
    9. NDP executives resign in protest over party leader Gary Burrill [NS] (12 points, 2 comments)
    10. Former Dion human rights aide pans Ottawa arms-control plans (11 points, 1 comment)
  8. 765 points, 1 submission: GumboBenoit
    1. As US prepares to gut net neutrality rules, Canada strengthens them (765 points, 112 comments)
  9. 716 points, 5 submissions: BattlestarBattaglia
    1. Inside Bell's Push To End Net Neutrality In Canada (479 points, 91 comments)
    2. Fraud investigation casts cloud over Ontario PCs’ platform launch (78 points, 23 comments)
    3. Patrick Brown’s fiscally risky, economically dubious plan for Ontario (66 points, 49 comments)
    4. Wynne says PC leader Patrick Brown’s hope of finding painless cuts is ‘nonsense’ (47 points, 33 comments)
    5. Police sift through ballot boxes in Hamilton PC nomination investigation (46 points, 4 comments)
  10. 710 points, 31 submissions: scottb84
    1. As Canadians consume ‘harmful’ levels of sodium, officials urge chefs to limit salt but face resistance (157 points, 109 comments)
    2. University of Toronto contract academic staff vote 91% in favour of strike mandate (82 points, 9 comments)
    3. The Deadly Racism of Thunder Bay: A series of stalled police investigations reveals a city that’s indifferent to Indigenous lives (73 points, 52 comments)
    4. No, postmodernism at universities isn'€™t a vile, cancerous doctrine (64 points, 88 comments)
    5. Toss of the Bitcoin: Canadians have poured millions into blockchain, but many don’t know what they’re buying (51 points, 33 comments)
    6. Andrew Scheer’s dad jeans and awkward hellos are painstakingly deliberate (43 points, 64 comments)
    7. The Misguided Fight Against Sex-Ed Reform: Alberta’s proposed curriculum has been met with the same tired controversy—and it isn’t making kids any safer (36 points, 3 comments)
    8. Toronto rental vacancy rates lowest in 16 years (32 points, 3 comments)
    9. Booze, drugs involved in 73 oilsands safety incidents since 2013, Suncor says (20 points, 7 comments)
    10. Buzzkillers: A brief history of the LCBO (17 points, 0 comments)
  11. 707 points, 30 submissions: kingbuns2
    1. Map showing Post-Secondary Degrees of Canadian MPs | Created by CanadianHistorian (152 points, 78 comments)
    2. Inuit want free travel over international waters between Canada, Greenland (104 points, 18 comments)
    3. On the Rails: A Case for Renewed Leftist Infatuation with Transport (80 points, 44 comments)
    4. Trudeau says housing is a human right — what does that mean exactly? UN says such a recognition does not mean the government has to build all of the nation's housing stock (68 points, 29 comments)
    5. Poll reveals Canadians' view of residential schools (36 points, 41 comments)
    6. Cashing In On Trump’s War on Universities: Republicans are gutting U.S. education; Canada — with boldness — can reap the benefits (30 points, 2 comments)
    7. Activists say Ottawa should deliver housing funds over two years, instead of 11 (29 points, 3 comments)
    8. African aid can’t keep up with stolen wealth (23 points, 4 comments)
    9. B.C. needs a brisk boost to $15/hr minimum wage: No reason for province to take a slower road than Ontario or Alberta (23 points, 20 comments)
    10. Postmedia, Torstar Marching Toward Media Monopolies: Journalism suffers as corporations swap papers to end competition (18 points, 1 comment)
  12. 695 points, 3 submissions: floatingpaper
    1. Canada will not move embassy to Jerusalem, federal government says (378 points, 236 comments)
    2. Ontario passes Cannabis Act, will take effect July 1, 2018 | Toronto Star (273 points, 166 comments)
    3. I highly recommend the show Political Blind Date by TVO. (44 points, 7 comments)
  13. 583 points, 3 submissions: Savage_N0ble
    1. Canadians want Ottawa to ban use of tax havens, poll finds | Toronto Star (478 points, 125 comments)
    2. Ottawa pressed on new registry to flush out mystery corporations (66 points, 26 comments)
    3. When it comes to harassment in politics, powerful people are writing rules for themselves: Neil Macdonald - CBC News (39 points, 13 comments)
  14. 554 points, 8 submissions: ThornyPlebeian
    1. Canada Jobless Rate Falls to Lowest in a Decade on Hiring Surge (228 points, 93 comments)
    2. Liberal Gordie Hogg defeats former Tory cabinet minister in South Surrey-White Rock (179 points, 94 comments)
    3. Trudeau to offer formal apology for LGBTQ persecution (70 points, 76 comments)
    4. Liberal MP accuses Conservative James Bezan of ‘humiliating’ sexual comments (48 points, 56 comments)
    5. Feds table bill to expunge 'unjust' convictions of LGBTQ Canadians (16 points, 16 comments)
    6. New fighter-jet competition to have 'economic interest' requirement (10 points, 8 comments)
    7. PM Trudeau strayed too far from historic wrongs in LGBTQ apology: Tory MPs (2 points, 0 comments)
    8. Canadian Surface Combatant team, led by Lockheed Martin Canada, unveiled (1 point, 5 comments)
  15. 539 points, 21 submissions: CytheYounger
    1. Canadian hate crimes growing and more violent for third straight year (302 points, 300 comments)
    2. Big Oil abandoning Canada’s oilsands in quest for cleaner crude (48 points, 39 comments)
    3. Washington Governor Touts Vancouver-Portland High-Speed Rail (44 points, 8 comments)
    4. Alberta's Rachel Notley urges Trudeau to speak up for pipelines (43 points, 77 comments)
    5. Despite What Politicians Say, Hundreds of BC Gas Wells Leak Methane (30 points, 8 comments)
    6. How will Canada manage its wildfires in the future? (13 points, 2 comments)
    7. Firestorm: Fort McMurray wildfire is a warning, book claims (9 points, 5 comments)
    8. New UBC-led report finds alternatives to Site C creates significantly more jobs, produce electricity at a lower cost with lower risks, have a significantly lower environmental impact, and produce less greenhouse gas emissions. (8 points, 5 comments)
    9. Behind the Mask of the ‘Moderates’ (7 points, 32 comments)
    10. B.C. oil spill response times make Trans Mountain Pipeline 'a ticking time bomb' (6 points, 8 comments)
  16. 451 points, 13 submissions: gwaksl
    1. Andrew Scheer's Everyman image won't be enough to beat Justin Trudeau - Macleans.ca (104 points, 142 comments)
    2. Federal Poll Average: LPC 38.64, CPC 31.43, NDP 16.76, GPC 6.81, BQ 4.73 (61 points, 59 comments)
    3. Liberals 39, Conservatives 31, NDP 17, Green 7: Nanos (59 points, 37 comments)
    4. Andrew Scheer weighs in on Catholic university that banned abortion film | Globalnews.ca (49 points, 54 comments)
    5. Liberals reject warship proposal that companies said would save taxpayers as much as $32B (49 points, 26 comments)
    6. COMMENTARY: The NDP had better get their act together (for the Tories’ sake!) - National | Globalnews.ca (30 points, 56 comments)
    7. Canada’s global prosperity ranking slips to lowest level in 11 years, but we still beat the U.S. | Financial Post (30 points, 16 comments)
    8. The 'free the beer' court case shows Canada isn't a true economic union (30 points, 25 comments)
    9. Weighted Poll Averages Post Singh (25 points, 10 comments)
    10. John Ivison: New private member’s bill could mean end of the Happy Meal in Canada (6 points, 3 comments)
  17. 444 points, 15 submissions: sluttytinkerbells
    1. Globe editorial: Taking the ‘hi’ out of ‘bonjour-hi’ won’t save the French language (88 points, 106 comments)
    2. Legal marijuana deadline may be up in smoke as Tory senators stall bills (73 points, 48 comments)
    3. Employer who stole nearly $3M in wages from 157 workers fined $500 (54 points, 16 comments)
    4. Migrant workers’ group slams NDP’s Singh for online posts on farm visit (49 points, 20 comments)
    5. Canada should fight for open internet, says former head of FCC - Politics (47 points, 13 comments)
    6. 2 more Winnipeg police officers charged with impaired driving (46 points, 5 comments)
    7. Alberta man convicted of criminal harassment following Creep Catcher incident (29 points, 4 comments)
    8. North Korean defectors in Toronto worried they may be deported: ‘They treat us like garbage’ (19 points, 10 comments)
    9. Immigrant French lesson program a failure: auditor general (15 points, 4 comments)
    10. Hydro One’s prepaid meter proposal sparks criticism | Toronto Star (7 points, 3 comments)
  18. 434 points, 2 submissions: NeutralEvilCarebear
    1. ‘He said, No, no, no’: Trump tells crowd about trade disagreement with Trudeau (264 points, 102 comments)
    2. Here’s all the Canadian senators who just awarded themselves a medal meant to honour ‘unsung heroes’ (170 points, 32 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. _Minor_Annoyance (3783 points, 228 comments)
  2. OrzBlueFog (3097 points, 239 comments)
  3. warflax (2540 points, 242 comments)
  4. fencerman (2336 points, 307 comments)
  5. CULTURAL___MARXIST (1915 points, 184 comments)
  6. EngSciGuy (1833 points, 233 comments)
  7. Cansurfer (1684 points, 255 comments)
  8. SatanicBarrister (1580 points, 156 comments)
  9. Pie_Gun (1387 points, 148 comments)
  10. Majromax (1202 points, 117 comments)
  11. randomu_name (1195 points, 156 comments)
  12. StrudleNudle (1176 points, 142 comments)
  13. eriktheguy (1161 points, 176 comments)
  14. SugarBear4Real (1161 points, 75 comments)
  15. CupOfCanada (1122 points, 185 comments)
  16. jtbc (1054 points, 115 comments)
  17. Acesolid (1021 points, 105 comments)
  18. juanless (1006 points, 92 comments)
  19. raptorman556 (891 points, 87 comments)
  20. habs76 (890 points, 61 comments)
  21. justinstigator (856 points, 77 comments)
  22. AvroLancaster (810 points, 101 comments)
  23. marshalofthemark (799 points, 113 comments)
  24. the_monkey_ (785 points, 70 comments)
  25. FleetInBeing (781 points, 42 comments)
  26. Statistical_Insanity (758 points, 124 comments)
  27. MethoxyEthane (731 points, 90 comments)
  28. LastBestWest (725 points, 151 comments)
  29. Kyrias (693 points, 26 comments)
  30. kludgeocracy (611 points, 59 comments)
  31. Celda (608 points, 65 comments)
  32. Issachar (605 points, 102 comments)
  33. seaintosky (588 points, 69 comments)
  34. Daravon (588 points, 32 comments)
  35. GoOtterGo (571 points, 24 comments)
  36. AhmedF (569 points, 51 comments)
  37. GumboBenoit (557 points, 86 comments)
  38. Rithense (545 points, 106 comments)
  39. PGXHC (522 points, 35 comments)
  40. steadly (519 points, 28 comments)
  41. Galickah (500 points, 34 comments)
  42. ___OccamsChainsaw___ (472 points, 31 comments)
  43. DarthPantera (460 points, 45 comments)
  44. Jeffgoldbum (449 points, 27 comments)
  45. ChimoEngr (444 points, 132 comments)
  46. Move_Zig (443 points, 69 comments)
  47. RegretfulEducation (443 points, 61 comments)
  48. aberthin (442 points, 61 comments)
  49. PopeSaintHilarius (440 points, 52 comments)
  50. varsil (440 points, 30 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. As US prepares to gut net neutrality rules, Canada strengthens them by GumboBenoit (765 points, 112 comments)
  2. Comparing marijuana to fentanyl is social conservatism without a clue: Opinion by StrudleNudle (723 points, 115 comments)
  3. This Conservative Politician Said Weed Is Just As Deadly as Fentanyl by steadly (492 points, 176 comments)
  4. Inside Bell's Push To End Net Neutrality In Canada by BattlestarBattaglia (479 points, 91 comments)
  5. Canadians want Ottawa to ban use of tax havens, poll finds | Toronto Star by Savage_N0ble (478 points, 125 comments)
  6. Poll suggests majority of Canadians backs outright ban on guns in urban areas by _Minor_Annoyance (395 points, 1213 comments)
  7. Canada will not move embassy to Jerusalem, federal government says by floatingpaper (378 points, 236 comments)
  8. Maxime Bernier reiterates opposition to Net Neutrality by OrzBlueFog (352 points, 173 comments)
  9. Alberta MLA says marijuana legalization could lead to communist revolution by teh_inspector (349 points, 108 comments)
  10. Ottawa to build 100,000 new affordable units, recognize housing as 'fundamental right ' by _Minor_Annoyance (345 points, 113 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 385 points: whoami9's comment in ‘He said, No, no, no’: Trump tells crowd about trade disagreement with Trudeau
  2. 305 points: _Minor_Annoyance's comment in ‘He said, No, no, no’: Trump tells crowd about trade disagreement with Trudeau
  3. 288 points: FleetInBeing's comment in NDP, experts call for greater control over Canadian arms sales abroad
  4. 193 points: SugarBear4Real's comment in ‘He said, No, no, no’: Trump tells crowd about trade disagreement with Trudeau
  5. 191 points: AhmedF's comment in This Conservative Politician Said Weed Is Just As Deadly as Fentanyl
  6. 187 points: Shawnanigans's comment in Ottawa to build 100,000 new affordable units, recognize housing as 'fundamental right '
  7. 178 points: jacnel45's comment in Trump says Trudeau left out lumber, energy while talking trade numbers
  8. 175 points: Galickah's comment in Ottawa to build 100,000 new affordable units, recognize housing as 'fundamental right '
  9. 175 points: deleted's comment in Prime Minister names the Honourable Richard Wagner as new Chief Justice of Canada
  10. 171 points: kludgeocracy's comment in Ontario passes $15 minimum wage
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