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Golden Star Casino Full Review

Payment processing has always been the biggest strain on the online gambling industry. Changing regulatory environments have sent casinos into a tailspin when they find out their main source of deposits is suddenly not available to them. In other cases, when an online casino finds a company willing to take them on as a client, the rates they are charged are as close to robbery as can be; this ends up cutting margins down to a bare minimum, making running an online casino less of an enticing career move.
The introduction of crypto-currency over the last few years has shown some signs of promise in the online gaming space. As the general public gets more accustomed to the idea of Bitcoin and its uses, we will see it adopted across more traditional purchasing. The gaming industry has adopted the technology from the start, with several Bitcoin-only sites popping up in 2013 and beyond. Recently, many providers have added cryptocurrency to their traditional payment methods, offering special bonuses for players to use the option.
Golden Star Casino is one of the true hybrid casinos when it comes to payments. As you will see in the review, the casino has integrated Bitcoin into all facets of their operations, from games to payments to promotions. This is a great way for players who aren’t familiar with the product to be able to give it a try without committing to a Bitcoin-only site.

About Golden Star Casino

Golden Star Casino is owned and operated by Jubise International N.V. Casinos, a Curacao based company. Established in 2012, the company also has a gaming license from the Curacao Gaming Authority. This license isn’t exactly rock-solid for players; the country tends to turn a blind eye to company behavior until it is too late. With the license, however, Jubise is able to attract the payment processors and software vendors it needs to provide you with a positive gaming experience at their site.
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Who Can Play at Golden Star Casino?

Even though the company is licensed in Curacao, which would clearly give the impression that they would take players from the U.S., Golden Star doesn’t allow Americans to deposit or gamble. Well, actually… there is a way, but you need to be aware of what you are getting into. It seems that U.S. players who use Bitcoin to deposit can actually create real money accounts and play at the tables. However, there have been several instances of players trying to withdraw their funds which, once it was determined they were in the U.S., had those funds confiscated and accounts closed. It is hard to say if you can withdraw right into your Bitcoin account without it being detected, but for the time being, I do not advise you try this from the States unless you are willing to take the risk that your deposit may be taken away from you.
As for other restricted countries, here is the list:
  • United Kingdom
  • Spain
  • United States
Also, please bear in mind that certain software suppliers restrict what countries are allowed to access their games. As a result, you may find some of the games written about in this review are not actually available in your country. The best thing to do is to create an account, and you will be able to see all the options for your casino play.

Software Suppliers

As mentioned, Golden Star has chosen to work with several software partners for their brand. This is excellent news for you; the company has chosen a broad spectrum of vendors including some of the most prestigious in the industry. You can find games from the following companies currently at Golden Star Casino:
  • Microgaming
  • Betsoft
  • Net Entertainment
  • iSoftBet
  • Endorphina
  • Ezugi
  • Amatic
  • SoftSwiss
  • Quickfire
  • Belatra
  • Pragmatic Play
The casino games at Golden Star are available in a no-download format, meaning you can play them instantly through your browser. Many of the games are also formatted to be able to be played on most mobile phones or tablets, allowing you to take your casino experience on the move with you no matter where you are.
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The Good Stuff

Jackpots

I love a casino that not only has several progressive jackpots available for its players but one who isn’t shy about telling you who has won them. At Golden Star, you can select from over 20 different jackpot games, and if you look on their jackpots page, there is a scrolling bar of recent winners; no one like to see that a jackpot isn’t paying out. Give some of their jackpot games a go if you want to get a little something extra out of your slots experience.

Bitcoin Slots

This is an interesting option for players; there are slots in the casino lobby that are designed for Bitcoin-only play. Why would a casino do this? Well, with the fluctuating value of Bitcoin these days, players may not want to get hosed on exchange rates. Also, this is an excellent way to have players learn about Bitcoin by having to think regarding the cryptocurrency throughout their entire casino experience.
Satoshi’s Secret is the most popular Bitcoin game in the industry, and you can try it at Golden Star Casino for free if you like to get a feel for the slot machine.

The Bad Stuff

Complaints about Terms and Conditions

No one likes to see complaints about an online casino, and many times I can dismiss them as individuals who are just upset that they lost their money. However, there are recurring concerns about the changing Terms and Conditions at Golden Star Casino. The company denies that they have made any changes without letting their players know, and have taken a strong stance on that accusation. I will continue to monitor that situation; if I find it to be actually happening, then it will be a big strike against the casino.

Games limited by Country

I’ll add this to the Bad Stuff because I live in Canada, and as a result, I am not able to access some of the better games that Golden Star Casino has on their site. While I totally understand why the casino isn’t allowed to offer all their games to all their players, it would be beneficial to have this information laid out in a clear manner somewhere on their website. I would much rather know going in instead of reading a review like this only to find out a game I love is not available when I make my deposit.

Game Selection

As I mentioned, you will find over 900 games at Golden Star Casino. I am going to take a look at all the different categories in more detail for you now.

Slots

It isn’t surprising to hear that the majority of available games in the Golden Star Casino lobby are slots games – this goes for almost every casino in the industry, whether online or land-based. However, having the multiple providers allows this casino to provide you several different looks to their slots catalog. They range from the fantastic content of the Microgaming slots to the 3D slot games that made Betsoft famous.

Table Games

The table games options at Golden Star Casino are a bit underwhelming considering how many suppliers the company has partnered with. Now, I may be missing some of the table games because of where I am reviewing the site from; all accounts are that they aren’t using Microgaming or NetEnt for games outside North America.

Video Poker

Along the same theme, there aren’t as many video poker variants as I would like to see at Golden Star Casino. I know that I am in the minority when it comes to video poker; I like the game more than most people do. Still, an online casino should easily be able to offer as many games as they can. Maybe they will read this review and add some from their vendors; I know they are available!

Specialty Games

One area where Golden Star Casino has apparently spent some time in development is in the Specialty Games offering. Using their partners like Quickfire, the casino gives you many different types of games to play that are not like the typical table games and slots. Many of these games have worse chances of coming out a winner, but I always consider them to be a nice way to take a break from a long session at the Blackjack table.

Live Dealer

Golden Star Casino has selected Ezugi as their Live Dealer provider. While the studios and dealers used by Ezugi are quite nice, there isn’t much in the way of selection from a games perspective. You can play the following games via the Live Dealer function:
  • Bet on Numbers (Bingo variant)
  • Keno
  • Blackjack
  • Roulette
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PROMOTIONS

The promotions at Golden Star are pretty bland overall. They are focused on the deposit bonuses as their primary form of attracting to you to their brand. Here is an overview of the bonuses currently available on the website:

First Deposit Bonus

  • 100% up to €100 or 100 mBTC + 100 FREE SPINS
Make your first deposit in Golden Star Casino and get up to €100 or 100 mBTC and 100 free spins in the Lucky Sweets slot

Second Deposit Bonus

  • 75% up to €100 or 100 mBTC
Keep having fun! Make your second deposit, and we will refill your balance up to €100 or 100 mBTC.

Third Deposit Bonus

  • 50% up to €100 or 100 mBTC
More and more bonuses for you! Get up to €100 or 100 mBTC on third deposit!
The company does have one ongoing bonus for players who play on the weekend. They have a “Have A Nice Weekend” recurring bonus of 50% up to $50 or 50 mBTC.
Overall, it is pretty disappointing to see no leaderboard or jackpot promotions, especially given how many games they could use for these types of offers.

Tournaments

Golden Star Casino does have a large selection of tournaments running on a daily and weekly basis. For someone who gets bored with slots play pretty quickly, I enjoy the tournament concept; if I go on a long run, I can make some additional cash, and it is the only way I actually see any other screen names while I am at the casino.
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Banking

As I have discussed many times in this review, the company seems to be very focused on making you a Bitcoin user, offering special games and bonuses for players who use the cryptocurrency. Golden Star does also have traditional payment methods available to its players; of course, each will be restricted by what countries are available. The most up-to-date payment methods for your country will be listed in the cashier section of the lobby after you login to your account.

Deposit Methods

  • MasterCard
  • Neteller
  • Visa
  • iDEAL
  • Sofortuberwaisung
  • QIWI
  • Trustly
  • Skrill
  • Yandex Money
  • Sberbank Online
  • Cubits
  • Comepay
  • Mobile Commerce

Withdrawal Methods

  • Bank Wire Transfer
  • Neteller
  • Visa
  • iDEAL
  • QIWI
  • Skrill
  • Trustly
  • Yandex Money
  • Cubits
  • Comepay
  • Evroset
  • Mobile Commerce
  • Sberbank

Comp/VIP Program

Golden Star Casino does offer its players a hybrid Comp/VIP program. In essence, this is a comp program that has tiers to it, giving you more enticing conversion rates for your comp points. While I am a big fan of casinos that give you comp points that you can cash in for real money, I am disappointed that there isn’t more to the VIP part of the program. I am hopeful that there is a more individual program that they just don’t advertise.
Here are the levels of the system and what conversion rates come with each level.
  • New Star – (0-149 CP) – no exchange
  • Bronze – (150-999 CP) – 14:1 Exchange
  • Silver – (1000-4999 CP) – 13:1 Exchange
  • Golden – (5000-14,999 CP) – 12:1 Exchange
  • Platinum – (15,000-29,999 CP) – 11:1 Exchange
  • Diamond – (30,000 CP) – 10:1 Exchange

Customer Service

Customer Service at Golden Star is available three ways: a web form on the Support page of their website, email or Live Chat. There is no phone number to reach the casino at this point; the only way to get a hold of them in real time is via the Live Chat function.
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[Table] IAmA dark web expert, investigative journalist and true crime author. I’ve met dark web kingpins in far flung prisons and delved the murky depths of child predator forums. I’ve written six books and over a dozen Casefile podcast episodes. AMA (part 2/2)

Source | Guestbook
Previous thread
Questions Answers
Around here nobody talks about the argument that increased regulation of the internet would help stop child predators. Is that true, and if so where do you fall on the Net Neutrality vs law enforcement spectrum? No I don't think that's true at all. Child predators have been around much longer than the internet, and I would argue child abuse was more prevalent 50+ years ago when children were seen and not heard and it wasn't talked about. The dark web hasn't created more predators, it has just given them a new place to gather and hang out.
The one thing I found really interesting when I was lurking the forums of the child predators was their frustration about how children are now taught from a very young age that certain touching and acts are wrong and that they shouldn't keep certain secrets. It came up over and over again that they could not abuse certain children because they knew those children had someone they would tell. It was pretty clear that education was a child's best defence against getting abused.
the below is a reply to the above
That's so interesting, thanks for the AMA! Can you remember any other thing that a child could do in order to protect himself from being abused? What other characteristics do the abusers hate in potential victims? That seems to be the main one. Kids who speak up and who have close relationships with one or more people they are likely to confide in
What do folks talk about in the child predator forums? Do they like give each other advice on how to improve their craft? Yes, quite literally. The give each other tips on how not to get caught, how to edit out incriminating details in videos, how to drug children, techniques for convincing kids not to tell etc
the below is a reply to the above
Given your insight into how predators operate, do you have any advice for parents on protecting their kids? I'll cut'n'paste a response i gave to someone else about this, because it was something that really stuck out to me:
The one thing I found really interesting when I was lurking the forums of the child predators was their frustration about how children are now taught from a very young age that certain touching and acts are wrong and that they shouldn't keep certain secrets. It came up over and over again that they could not abuse certain children because they knew those children had someone they would tell. It was pretty clear that education was a child's best defence against getting abused. Kids who speak up and who have close relationships with one or more people they are likely to confide in
Has the exponential increase in Bitcoin value affected darknet dealers in any profound way? I can imagine that some drug dealers were sitting on quite a large sum of Bitcoin when the value shot up. Crypto purists hate to admit it, but bitcoin would not be where it is today without Silk Road. It was sitting at less than a dollar when Silk Road began and the markets showed a robust use case for cryptocurrency and as the markets grew, so did the demand for bitcoin. It also provided real-life use data for those who were not interested in drugs but who weren't sure if it had practical application. When SR went down, Bitcoin was at about $650 and it continued to grow as adoption became more mainstream. There are many many stories of drug dealers (and at least one faux-hitman!) who gained most of their wealth not by selling the drugs, but by the growth in value of their bitcoin holdings
Since you have a lot of experience with them online. Do you think pedophiles(not child abusers) should be treated as criminals, or as people suffering from a mental illness? Contact offenders should be treated as criminals, because they are criminals. They have abused or hurt someone. Same with those who support the creation and dissemination of child abuse materials.
Pedophiles who do not act on their urges should be given as much help as humanly possible.
Are there any mysterious or suspicious pages or communities that you haven’t been able to access? Anything that seems especially weird? there are a lot of Russian communities that I can't access, mostly because I don't speak Russian. Some of the more technical hacking communities have entry barriers that I'm not technical enough to score an invite to
How much these bad people really exist out there? Hundreds? Thousands? More? It depends what you mean by bad. If you mean people who use the dark web to buy drugs (who I do not consider bad) then there are many many thousands. There are also thousands of people who deal in stolen information to make money.
Unfortunately there are also thousands of child predators and the dark web has provided a "safe space" for them to come together to share materials and "tips". I hope this is where most of the resources of law enforcement are concentrated
Ehy mine is a rare question: what do you know about art on dark web? I'm talking about the black market made of stolen important pieces from museums, art used as value to money laundry and other criminal affairs I'm an artist and what I know is people don't think too much about the dark side of art and probably they need to open their eyes about I really haven't come across much in the way of that. Some of the markets have an "art" section, but that is mostly blotter art
How accurate are the legends? Any legends in particular? For a lowdown copied from a post I made in another forum:
1Red Rooms  The one that is most persistent is the myth of the "Red Room" - live streaming of torture/rape that ends in the murder of the victim and which people can pay to watch, or even bid to type in commands for the torturer to carry out (highest bid wins!). The most famous was the “ISIS Red Room” pictured above, where people could provide instructions to torture captured terrorists - you can read what happened here.
People have this idea of Hostel with webcams exist all over the dark web, but you just need an invite to get into them. It's ridiculous. They don't exist. They certainly wouldn't exist on Tor. But people are desperate to believe and they always come back with "You can't prove they don't exist, people are crazy, therefore they must exist." Picture my eyes rolling here.
2.Hitman sites
I don't think many people are taken in by the hitmen sites anymore, though the press loves playing up the fact that there are sites offering up hitman services. But every single one of them has turned out to be a scam, especially Besa Mafia, the one that did the most marketing. Again, you can read about it at the same link as above.
3.Exotic animals  People are always asking where they can find markets for exotic animals. Obviously the illegal trade in exotic animals exists, and some communications and transactions may well take place over Tor, but there are no markets like the drug markets where you can go and look at a picture and then put a tiger or ocelot or something into your basket and buy it with bitcoin.
SO WHAT DOES HAPPEN ON THE DARK WEB?
1.People buy and sell drugs.
The drug markets are more busy than ever. You have probably heard of Silk Road, the most famous online drug market that got busted a few years ago and the owner sent to prison for two consecutive life terms? A lot of people thought that was the end of drugs being sold on the dark web. In fact, dark web sales of drugs have tripled since the shutdown of Silk Road.
The reason people buy drugs this way is that for many they offer a safer alternative for people who are going to do drugs anyway. There is no possibility of any violence. The vast majority of the time a buyer knows exactly what they are getting, because of the feedback and rating system. That's not the case in a nightclub, or even friends-of-friends, where you just blindly accept that the pill, powder or tab is what the seller says it is.
2.People buy and sell other illegal things
Mostly they buy and sell stolen credit cards and financial information, fake IDs (though lots of these are scams), personal information, “dumps” of hacked data and fraud-related items. For a long time, a seller was making a fortune selling fake discount coupons that really worked.
3.People access and create childporn  Unlike the other markets, the CP market is generally not for money, but rather they are groups who swap vile images and videos for free. The worst of the worst is called “hurtcore’. Thankfully, most of the people behind the worst sites have been arrested and put in jail.
4.People talk about stuff
There are plenty of sites, forums and chatrooms where people talk about all sorts of things - conspiracies, aliens, weird stuff. They take advantage of the anonymity.
5.People anonymously release information
Whistleblowers use the dark web to release information and make sure their identities won't be compromised. You will find Wikileaks, for example, on the dark web.
6.People surf the web anonymously
The number 1 thing people use the dark web for is just to surf the web completely anonymously. Not everybody wants to be tracked by advertisers.
I have a question: what are the odds of the casual Darkweb drug buyer - not buying mega loads all the time - the occasional purchase - what are the risks of being busted? Kinda figuring pretty low. But you’re the expert. What do you think? Obviously there is always a risk, but the risk is very low. It is rare for personal amounts to be seized. Even if a package is seized, there's usually no resources to follow it up. Many people report simply receiving a letter from Customs saying they have seized what they believe is contraband and the person has a choice of going to claim it or it will be destroyed. Even if LE does knock on the door there is plausible deniability: "I don't know who sent that stuff to me".
So yeah, rare, but it does happen. You might be the unlucky one
How do you find things on the dark web without search engines? There are a lot of entry sites, set up with links to the most popular places. You can generally get a link to one of them by browsing places like reddit. From there it is a matter of checking out different places, people will put links in forums etc.
I also use a Pastebin where people paste sites they have made/found, and a Fresh Onion site, which crawls all the newly-populated .onion addresses
Hi. there!! Thank you for answering questions. Mine is very simple. How do sellers get the drugs to people? Regular mail? That's always puzzled me bc I'd assume USPS, UPS, fedEx or any other mail carrier would catch at least some goods. If people are ordering drugs, particularly in powder form, for personal use, they can be flattened, sealed in MBB (moisture barrier baggies) and sent in a regular business envelope, indistinguishable from billions of other envelopes going through the postal system every day. The chances of a particular package being intercepted is very low.
Some people take the extra precaution of having the person taking delivery of the drugs different to the person/household that is ordering them.
How did you move from being a corporate lawyer to researching and writing about dark web? I was in London, working for one of the most conservative law firms in the world when the Global Financial Crisis hit. I liked the job but it struck me when people were losing their livelihoods that I was working for the bad guys. I'd always wanted to be a writer so when I came back to Australia I quit law and enrolled in a writing course planning to be a novelist, but I discovered I was better at journalism. I first wrote for newspapers here about Silk Road and it grew from there
I've always wanted to check out the dark web, what is a normal day for you look like on there? Can you give me any tips on how to safely surf the dark web? A normal day looks like me sitting at my desk writing things on my computer. When I'm researching a book or a case I venture away from my computer to trials and to interview people (at least I did pre-COVID)
There is nothing inherently unsafe in surfing the dark web. All the usual precautions you take surfing the clearweb apply. Don't visit any child exploitation sites - it will be pretty obvious that's what they are by the names/descriptions before you log in.
It is only when you want to do more than surfing - e.g. buying drugs etc - that you need to do a LOT of homework or you will absolutely get scammed
Is there anything good about the dark web? It depends what you are into. A lot of academic research has concluded that the darknet markets provide a safer way for people to buy and use drugs, due to the ratings of vendors, services that independently test and report back on batches of drugs, doctor on staff ready to answer questions, no violence in transactions etc.
News sites provide a dark web option so that whistleblowers can safety provide information and upload documents that get stripped of any identifying metadata before being available.
It bypasses firewalls and allows for secure communications under hostile regimes
the below is a reply to the above
How does this make you feel about the idea of the decriminalization of drugs? I've always been for full legalization of drugs, and studying the darknet markets just proved I was right.
I was invited to an experts roundtable in Portugal about drugs and cybercrime a few years ago and the Portugal model of decriminalisation has been a great success
the below is a reply to the above
Hey, you are still answering. Been reading this thread for 1-2 hours now. Thank you so much for all the good work and info! Always been intrigued by this topic, downloaded tor once to explore a bit but couldn’t and deleted it right away, to be on the safer side. Great insights. Thanks! I've been writing it for about 14 hours. Going a bit loopy
How was working on Casefile? What's the production process like? Which episodes did u do?? I have listened to... all of them.... I absolutely LOVE working for Casefile. I am a freelancer, so I source and write my own cases and then sell the scripts to Casefile. I've done at least a dozen, but some of my most popular are Amy Allwine, Mark & John, Ella Tundra, Leigh Leigh, Rebecca Schaeffer...
As for the production process, once I have sold the script to them, a staff member edits them and then they are passed on to Casey to narrate. After that, they go to Mike for sound editing, music etc. They are the best team ever
the below is a reply to the above
Oh, Leigh Leigh was so well written!! How do you choose which stories to write? Do you just pick true crime you're interested in? Thank you! I have a huge list of potential episodes. Any time I come across an interesting crime on reddit, or in the news or wherever I make a note of it. Then I just pick one when it comes time to write a new script.
Sometimes I've been personally involved (e.g. Amy Allwine), gone to trials etc. Those are always the best ones
Hi Eiley, your twitter just reminded me of this AMA :) What are your thoughts on bitcoin? And would you prefer to be paid in crypto or fiat? OOOOH, I know that name! Love & Light to you!
I like Bitcoin and I wish I had a whole lot of it and like many many people, I wish I had kept the first crypto I bought at something like $4 a coin :D I do not have a whole lot of it but I do have a little bit. I like the philosophy behind it and in theory it should change the world. However the reality is that the vast majority of it is concentrated in a very few hands which allows for market manipulation and stops it being useful as a post-fiat currency.
As long as I'm getting paid, I'm pretty happy!
the below is a reply to the question
I too remember your name Pluto! Such a decent human ❤ he is!! True OG right there <3
Is the dark web subject to more racism than its counterpart, the world wide web? There are some white power sites and that sort of thing and the chans are even more uncensored than the clearweb ones (4chan, 8chan) but to be honest they are the same cesspools in different spots. Drug forums don't seem to be very racist. I've seen worse on Twitter
Have you seen any consequential political or social organizing being carried out on the dark web? Not directly, but the dark web helped facilitate the Arab Spring uprising in 2010 by allowing activists to remain anonymous and to access blocked websites and social media. Wikileaks, obviously. Some white supremacy organizations seem to use it to coordinate attacks, but they are not places I'm keen to hang out in.
What’s the most expensive thing for sale you’ve seen on the dark web? What was surprisingly inexpensive? I can't remember specific listings, but there were sometimes sales of things like coke by the kilo, so that sort of thing I guess.
LSD could easily be found for $1/tab and one huge dealer gave it away for free if it was for personal use
the below has been split into separate questions
1. I’m going to ask a couple in hopes that one will catch your interest! I know you’re anonymous on the dark web, but even so, have you ever felt worried about your safety? I actually made the decision to be upfront and honest about who I am on the dark web, so I use the name OzFreelancer (which is easily traceable to my real name) on all the dark web sites where i went looking for interviews. The people there had the option of talking to me or not, so they had no reason to want to harm me.
2. I’ve found your comments about your relationship with Yura fascinating. Did y’all develop a friendship? Did you build any other relationships that stand out in your mind? Since you were straightforward about being on the dark web for stories, did people seem reluctant to communicate, or were they excited for the opportunity to divulge a secret? We do have a friendship of sorts, it is really quite weird. I do hope to met him one day. I met all of the senior staff of Silk Road other than the Dread Pirate Roberts himself and keep in touch with some. Some people wanted nothing to do with me of course, but many more were happy to talk to me. i think sometimes it was a relief to them to be able to talk to one person who they knew was who they said they were.
3. On violent forums, did users ever express remorse, guilt, shame, or anything indicative of some recognition that what they were viewing/seeking was awful? Do you see doxxing teams on the dark web working together to uncover info, or is the info already there through previous hacks/breaches, and someone just accesses and releases it? Sorry if any of those don’t make sense! I’m not familiar with the dark web lingo but am so intrigued by your work. Not really. I think if they were contributing to the forums, they were comfortable with who they were and what they were doing. Many of the "regular" pedophiles expressed revulsion about Lux and hurtcore sites though
these have probably been asked before but has there ever been a time where you where genuinely been scared for your life and whats the most messed up thing you've witnessed did you have any help? Yeah both things have been answered in this thread, so I'll cut'n'paste
The only time I've felt even slightly in danger despite all this nosing around in there was when I helped uncover a hitman scam. The owner of Besa Mafia, the most profitable murder-for-hire site in history, came after me when I started writing about him. He made loads of threats ("you don't know who I am, but I know who you are and where you live") but that wasnt scary, as I had access to the backdoor of his site thanks to a friendly hacker and knew he didn't really want to hurt anybody.
It took a bit of a darker turn when he told the people who had signed up to work as hitmen on his site - and who he made video themselves burning cars with signs on them to advertise how legit his site was, then never sent them the promised money for doing so - that I was the owner of the site who had ripped them off. That could have become ugly, but luckily even the thugs weren't dumb enough to believe him.
The only other time I've been a bit nervous was when Homeland Security wanted to have a "friendly" meeting with me on one of my trips to the US to attend a trial. They were friendly, but scary too.
The most frightening experience I've ever had is coming face to face with Lux, the owner of Pedoempire and Hurt2theCore, the most evil and reviled person on the entire dark web. He was responsible for procuring and hosting Daisy's Destruction, the most repulsive video ever made, created by Peter Scully, whose crimes were so bad, the Philippines are considering reinstating the death penalty especially for him.
It wasn't frightening because Lux was frightening - he was anything but. It was frightening because he looked so inoffensive and normal.
It was frightening because he was living proof that monsters walk among us and we never know.
[deleted] It is absolute crap for browsing the clearweb, and a lot of sites detect that it is odd traffic and you have to solve their CAPTCHAs before doing the most basic things
I’m sure you’ve seen some really bad stuff, do you regularly talk to a therapist to help? I've never seen a therapist (they don't really seem to be a thing in Australia they way they are in the US), but I have been known to unload on my partner and my dog
the below is a reply to the question
Yo, speaking as an Aussie, they absolutely are a thing, you can get them covered thru medicare, and I recommend it if you possibly can! Bro, therapy is awesome. I'm not against therapy as a thing, but I've honestly never been so traumatised that I feel I need it. Also I had a bad experience with a psychologist after I watched my partner die in an accident - they suggested I find God, and I noped out of there
the below is another reply to the answer
Therapist is an American term- we call them psychs. And the one who told you to find God was terrible and out of line. Yeah she didn't last long before I was over it. Also a doctor decided I needed Xanax, which was also a bad move, because what I really needed was to grieve and Xanax doesn't let you do that properly
Do you find any good things on the dark web? Happy stuff that gives people hope? Or just the trash? I like the psychonaut communities. They just want peace, love and mungbeans for everybody
Have you heard of "The Primarch System" rumor of the dark web? Sounds downright silly to me. But I'm curious if anyone who spends time on the deep web actually takes it seriously, or if as an idea it is connected to anything serious at all. Nah, up there with the Shadow Web and Mariana's Web. There's always people who want to find out where the "deeper" "more secret" "really dark" stuff is. To them I say what, hurtcore isn't dark enough for you?
Doesn't delving the murky depths of child predator forums categorize you with the child predators in the eyes of an investigating law enforcement agency? Do you have some sort of amnesty due to your journalism, or is that something you worry about having to explain away? Has your presence there ever caused some sort of a scare? No, I never went into any of the sites that had actual photos or videos (you can't un-see that shit), but did spend a lot of time in pedophile discussion forums. I also went to a hurtcore hearing and saw screenshots in the police files, as well as listening for two days to videos being described frame-by-frame and private communications between the site owner and the sadists.
Besides drugs and sex crimes, what else is going on in the dark web? Are there other interesting nooks and crannies? I often post screenshots of bizarre sites I find on my Twitter. However, the main uses for the dark web are drugs, digital/fraud goods and child exploitation
I have one, it might be rather boring though, but here goes. On these "child predator forums" are they actually forums devoted to stalking children and do they share social media profiles of children among themselves? That would be kik ids, snapchat and facebook ids, instagram, stuff like that, info that would allow online access and that may have been chosen for suitability? Creepy question I know, but anyway I would be interested to hear your answer. I came here from TrueCrime, you referred to these things in your post on that sub. I suspect I already know the answer yet would like to hear your take on it. Yes, they provide information and tips on how to approach children, how to ensure they won't tell, how to sedate them in some instances, where to find child exploitation material, how to remove metadata and any identifying characteristics in photos and videos before sharing and so on.
They don't tend to share socia media, as that is the sort of thing that can be traced easily. They do talk about how to approach kids on social media and on the worst forums how to blackmail children into stripping/meeting etc
the below is a reply to the above
So you're saying they have a more general approach rather than identifying individual children on the internet? Again a creepy question because what I suggest is that a child's social media could be used and circulated on the dark web as potential information to gain access by anonymity, even if it was just online access only. I actually wonder as I have recently read of the anonymity of apps like ''kik messenger'' and how the police are often unable to get any information from the communications as they remain encrypted and off the server and require little if any valid ID to make an account. No doubt photos from social media are uploaded as part of the materials they have. I haven't seen anything where they get together and try to track down a specific child, but I'm sure some predators do this. Most are more likely to abuse children in their orbit - family, kids of friends, or they work where they have access to children
I heard there are forums to download books but it was really dangerous, Is it true? I'm just a poor guy who wants to finish the young Jack sparrow series Whenever you download anything from a pirate site you run the risk of infection
What do you think of QAnon? Wackjob conspiracy
the below is a reply to the above
Who should the conspiracy theorists actually be worried about if they actually care about thwarting pedophilia? The vast, vast majority of child abuse takes place within the child's personal orbit - relatives, family friends, parents of their own friends, people involved in their activities (coaches, leaders, etc)
So, those people
the below is another reply to the answer
Also how to we get people to stop believing in QAnon? Outside my area of expertise, sorry
do you personally believe there was/is any truth to the "defense" (story) that DPR was a title handed down to different admins for the original silk road, or was it just a convenient defense? do you have any theories as to who satoshi nakamoto is? besides the original SR, are there any other darkweb markets that you think have a good enough story to turn into a book? eg sheep market? i've seen you talk a little about the child predator forums, and (as with h2tc) noted are mainly populated by males. i'm curious if you've ever encountered females on such forums/websites (eg. btfk) No. There was a time that I believed the person posting on the forums as DPR changed, but the ownership and administration of the market I believe never changed hands. Variety Jones is claiming a part ownership (which may or may not be true) but I believe that is so he can run a Fourth Amendment argument
So many theories have some credibility to them, but no one theory ticks all the boxes. Highly recommend the 3-part youtube deep dive by Barely Sociable
I'm not sure any one market has the story that Silk Road had, but I would like to write a definitive history that encompasses the most compelling features of all the markets. Backopy of BMR apparently got away clean. The admins of Atlantis got wind of a security issue and closed shop, trying to warn DPR. AlphaBay ended in Alexander Cazes death in a Bangkok prison cell. Then everyone flocked to Hansa, which by that time was being run by law enforcement. Evolution ended in the most brazen exit scam, followed by a bizarre cloak'n'dagger situation played out right here on reddit. The WSM/DDW follow-the-money case. And these are just some that come right off the top of my head. I just need a publisher to provide me an advance I can live off while I write it!
There were a very few people on the forums who identified as female (obvs anyone can be anyone on a dark web forum) and there have been one or two arrests of women in relation to dark web child pornography. Peter Scully's female assistant who carried out some of the torture was originally one of his victims, turned into a sadist.
What’s the one lingering unanswered question you have about SR? I am hanging out for Joel Ellingson to go to trial so that I can find out once and for all whether redandwhite, lucydrop and Tony76 are one and the same person.
There are several people who I got to "know" by their handles who I wonder about from time to time, but mostly I hope they are safe and well and i don't want to track them down or expose them
the below is a reply to the above
Eileen, I am fangirling PRE-TTY hard right now. Talking SR and Tony76 with you is how I imagine it feels to talk to a royal correspondent about Prince Andrew 😅 Ellingson being all three would be a very neat end to an otherwise insane story. Part of me wants to pin Oracle in with that trio too but that’s mostly a desperate attempt from me to add another layer to the madness. I miss the twists and turns that came with the rise and fall of SR. From your own experience - would you agree with the idea that more than one person staffed the DPR account? Thanks for the reply! Ha! You have no idea what it is like when I find someone who really knows about this stuff and can have informed conversations about it. I latch onto them and don't let go. The very BEST was meeting up with DPR's three deputies (SSBD in Australia, Inigo in US and Libertas in Ireland) so I could actually have conversations with people who knew more than I did! Variety Jones was cool too, but the conversation couldn't flow too freely thanks to him being incarcerated in Bangkok prison at the time.
I think others sometimes posted from the forum account, but Ulbricht kept a vice-like grip on his market account
the below is a reply to the above
I can imagine it’s so satisfying and exciting to get those tidbits of info that piece the jigsaw together. The bedlam that played out over the forum in the aftermath was a cloud of paranoia and adrenaline that kept me refreshing pages for days. Would love to hear accounts from SSBD, Inigo and Libertas from this time. One last question: what were your thoughts when the Chloe Ayling story first broke? I assumed it was a publicity stunt. I don't think that any more. I guess I can't blame her for milking her kidnapping for publicity in the aftermath, though I don't think she does herself any favors the way she goes about it sometimes
Sorry if this has been covered before but in your research, mainly related to child abuse, where are these children coming from? Children in their care/ family? Kidnapped? The vast majority of child abuse is carried out by someone within their social circle - family and acquaintances. However, the hurtcore stuff was often carried out in third world countries on orphans or where desperate families gave up their children to "benefactors" who they believed were going to provide food an education
What Casefile episodes have you written? I became obsessed with it and ripped through all the episodes and now nothing will fill that void. Thanks for your efforts! Casefile – the murder of Amy Allwine
Casefile – Blue Skies, Black Death
Casefile – Ella Tundra
Casefile – Dnepropetrovsk Maniacs
Casefile – Motown Murders
Casefile – Rebecca Schaeffer
Casefile – Sian Kingi
Casefile – John & Mark
Casefile – Shauna Howe
Casefile – Chloe Ayling
Casefile – Johnny Altinger
Casefile – Killer Petey
Casefile – The Santa Claus Bank Robbery
Casefile – Martha Puebla
Casefile – Leigh Leigh
Is there any way parents can keep their kids safe from this without being helicopter parents? I'll cut'n'paste a response i gave to someone else about this, because it was something that really stuck out to me:
The one thing I found really interesting when I was lurking the forums of the child predators was their frustration about how children are now taught from a very young age that certain touching and acts are wrong and that they shouldn't keep certain secrets. It came up over and over again that they could not abuse certain children because they knew those children had someone they would tell. It was pretty clear that education was a child's best defence against getting abused. Kids who speak up and who have close relationships with one or more people they are likely to confide in
What does it take in terms of degrees and experience to get into this business? Nothing official. I was a lawyer, but that had no bearing on what I do now (I did corporate law). I didn't have any official credentials when I began as a freelance journalist, though later I got a diploma of professional writing and editing. Anyone can be an author, provided they can write
If you could take a guess from your findings, what would be some speculative statistics on these abuse/torture sites? How many people (tens of thousands?) are involved? Do they generally come from the same places in the world or are they seemingly geographically random (based on victim ethnicity, or language spoken, perhaps)... what are some quantifying stats to wrap our heads around how prevalent this shit is? Most dark web users come from western countries, just because infrastructure supports it. The sites often have tens of thousands of registered users, but a lot of them would be people for whom curiosity got the better of them and who signed up then left. Active users more like in the thousands, hyper-active users the hundreds.
One of the things that makes life difficult for law enforcement is that most of these sites don't operate on a commercial basis - people aren't making money from them, so there is no cryptocurrency chain to follow. They operate on a sharing basis and to get access to the more private parts of the sites, a user has to upload "fresh" material and/or prove they are actively abusing a child. Hurt2theCore used to get users to have the children hold up signs or have the site name or a username written on their bodies with a marker. This stopped law enforcement from getting access to those parts (like the "producers lounge") of the sites unless they were able to take over an account of a user who already had access. Even then, the rules of the hurtcore sites would require constant new proof in order to maintain access.
Some sites allowed people to buy access, such as one called "Welcome to Video" and then were taken down by law enforcement carrying out blockchain analysis of the Bitcoin transaction that led to the owner when they cashed out to fiat without moneylaundering precautions
the below is a reply to the above
Do you think LE uses deep fakes to simulate a picture to gain access? Is that possible? It is definitely possible, but I don't know whether they are doing it as they are understandably secretive about their methods. I know it is deeply problematic, as even fake child porn is still illegal (even cartoon stuff, including some Hentai in some countries). But they have used questionable methods before, most notably running the dark web's largest site, Playpen, for over a year in order to identify contact offenders
the below is another reply to the original answer
Am I hearing you that many people are NOT doing this for financial gain? Just to do it and share it?? Child exploitation, yes, it is mostly a sharing community. Some people make some money out of it, but it is not like drugs where a lot of people are making a LOT of money
On the subject of abused kids... did you ever help the kids in any way? I never met any of the kids. I never saw any of the photos and videos. I don't know who any of the kids are.
Daisy has been taken into care and her identity changed. I hope she is doing okay
What exactly does the dark web look like? You hear about it often, but don’t know if it looks like Google Chrome, Safari, or just a page full of code. It looks like a normal browser and operates just like a normal browser. It's just that it can access sites that your normal browser can't.
e.g. http://thehub5himseelprs44xzgfrb4obgujkqwy5tzbsh5yttebqhaau23yd.onion/index.php is the URL of a dark web forum. If you plug it into your normal browser you will get an error. If you plug it into the Tor browser you will get the registration page for The Hub
How do you keep yourself from hating all humanity? I am happy to report that, even on the dark web, the good people outnumber the bad
Hi! First off I'd like to say that I find what you do quite fascinating and would love to do something like that in the future. My question is in regards to art and other forms of artistic expression on the dark web. Is it true that the dark web is a place where you can also find awesome things such as art and literature? Not really, because all that stuff is readily available on the clearweb. There are sites like the Imperial Library of Trantor, which is a pirate site for books, where you can read thousands of books for free, but that's really no different to The Pirate Bay. Some people share their LSD art, but again, nothing you won't find on the clearweb
submitted by 500scnds to tabled [link] [comments]

500 to 5000 MCO Upgrade Strategy

Currently the 500 MCO tier is sort of the sweet spot for most users where a lot of valuable perks kick in. When I first purchased MCO it was under $3 USD, so going straight to the 500 tier was an obvious choice. I was planning to put some Stablecoins and Bitcoin into earn, so the added 2% bonus in-kind in earn, plus the 3% card cashbacks and Netflix reimbursement made the choice economically beneficial quite quickly. Less than a year later the benefits have provided me a larger return on investment than if I had done otherwise.
I have been eyeing the upgrade to the 5000 tier, but I wanted to do an analysis of what sort of upgrade strategy makes sense to optimize ROI weighted against risks and if I'm even the right candidate for such an investment. With the price of MCO being higher, it's not such a clear decision. I will outline my thought process below.
Assumptions - These are the assumptions that I am working with for my analysis. Working with a different set of assumptions will affect the decision making process differently for different people.
Based on the above assumptions we can now look at different upgrade pathways and see which options make the most sense. This thought process is a place to start and can be adjusted to each person's individual case.

Stablecoin (Fiat) to MCO pathway

At today's price of ~$4.85 USD at time of writing, it would cost $21,825 USD to upgrade directly into the 5000 tier by buying 4500 additional MCO. This gives additional benefits of 2% in earn, 1% on card, and 8% vs 6% on staked MCO.
The variables we need to look at to find out if this makes sense over the next year are: assets in Earn and annual card spend.
The opportunity cost of putting the money into MCO is a 4% yield on $21,825 (12% in Earn minus 8% staked in MCO) minus a 2% yield on 500 MCO, or roughly $824.50.
We also open ourselves up to exchange rate volatility, there is a very real, non-0% chance that the crypto market collapses, or that MCO itself collapses in value. There is also a chance it will go way up. If you are looking to hold the MCO, or crypto in general, for longer periods of time, we need to sort of normalize the projected trend to figure out ROI. That means ignoring big jumps and drops, or retroactively thinking you could have made or lost money by trading in and out… that falls under trading and speculation. In general, most of us think the crypto market is going up, but by how much and how fast are variables that need to be considered in how exposed to crypto you want to be
In order to make this pathway a positive ROI, we need to make an additional $824.50 through the added benefits in Earn and card spending over the course of one year. What does that look like?
Assets in Earn*0.02 + Card spend*0.01>824.50 
Examples:
If you don't have roughly $35-40k in Earn, upgrading to 5000 Tier makes very little sense IMO.
Full Account Examples (Assuming today's crypto prices):
Case 1 and 2 are very similar in total assets, but case 2 provides the better return after one year ($20,760 - $17,735.50 = $3,024.50) at the cost of being more exposed to crypto.

Bitcoin to MCO pathway via Drip

Another option to consider is upgrading to the 5000 tier via Bitcoin. I mention "Drip" in the header because I imagine most people able to do a lump sum conversion would encounter a taxable event and would be less inclined to go that route. Utilizing a drip format will upgrade on a longer time scale, but result in negligible taxable gain. It also keeps crypto exposure at roughly the same level throughout the process.
The benefits from going to MCO from BTC is a higher interest rate for MCO being staked at 6% vs BTC in Earn at 5.5%; I also assume CDC will be able to keep the 6% on MCO longer than they can keep the rate high on BTC. The drawbacks are less liquidity on MCO, potentially more volatility, and potential loss of value relative to BTC in Satoshis (we'll ignore the last point since we are assuming a similar sat ratio over time).
Another thing to mention, if we want to upgrade over the course of one year, BTC holdings need to be pretty sizable at $400,000 That's a little unreasonable for most people, so let's assume a smaller holding of $100,000 btc like the two cases above. This will take three years to accomplish and the equation gets a bit more complicated in this situation.
Basically if you take the above situation and plug it into a compound interest calculator, compounding quarterly, it takes almost 3 years exactly to drip your way into the 5000 tier. We can mostly ignore any change in crypto USD value as long as the MCO/BTC ratio stays similar.
If you definitely want to go to the 5000 tier, the question becomes purchase lump sum via Fiat or drip via crypto.
The opportunity cost of dripping is the lost 2% gain in earn over the course of 3 years (which as you'll see below, could be significant if the market jumps quickly at which point purchasing via Fiat becomes prohibitively expensive). But the benefit is that you maintain your current crypto exposure in the case of a major bear market where you could potentially purchase via Fiat at a much lower price.

Exit Strategy

I think it's important to think about an exit strategy. In my opinion, upgrading to the 5000 tier only really makes sense if you are having a lot of assets in Earn. The added 1% on card spend and other perks pales in comparison to the added 2% on Earn with a large amount of assets. It's also my opinion that MCO should only be a small portion of a crypto portfolio. Regardless, if MCO is your main holding you are betting on the crypto market going up, because the added 5000 tier benefits won't comparatively amount to much over a year anyway.
If crypto prices stay the same the benefits to holding MCO stay flat, but as crypto prices rise, the incentives change. Imagine we go on a huge bull run and the market goes up 20x. I bet a lot of people will want to rebalance and cash in some of that profit. It's quite possible holding 5000 MCO becomes too big of a risk for the benefits received.
What's nice is that CDC seems to have thought about the optimal profile for people to get to the 5000 tier level...like I stated above, people with significant assets in Earn.
Imagine the person in Case 2 above in an environment where the crypto market shoots up 20x.
In this situation, it makes sense to rebalance your portfolio and take some earnings off the table. However, it actually makes a lot of sense to keep the 5000 MCO staked and rebalance away from BTC into Stablecoins. Look at the yearly earnings of different options below:
As you can see, losing the bonus 2% in earn cuts your profit over the course of a year.
CDC was quite thoughtful in changing the award structure for the added 2% in Earn. It should keep early adopters from leaving if the market goes up, and should actually attract newly minted crypto whales as they rebalance out of other cryptos. This should keep the MCO price strong for a long time and give confidence to people investing in MCO.

Conclusion

I think upgrading to the 5000 tier can make a lot of sense for certain people. But after reaching the 5000 tier I would probably immediately cash out all rewarded MCO to Stablecoins to compound at a higher interest rate and just maintain the 5000 level. Unless there are some dramatic new rewards for the 50,000 level I don't see the value proposition to go for Black. Perhaps an additional 2% in Earn, but that is probably not sustainable to the company.
Let me know what you think, or if I made any mistakes.

Edit: Changed numbers to reflect 8% earned on staked MCO at the 5000 Tier level. This makes the upgrade more compelling.

submitted by gym7rjm to Crypto_com [link] [comments]

Dive Into Tendermint Consensus Protocol (I)

Dive Into Tendermint Consensus Protocol (I)
This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.
longcpp @ 20200618
This is Part 1 of the serialized articles aimed to explain the Tendermint consensus protocol in detail.
Part 1. Preliminary of the consensus protocol: security model and PBFT protocol
Part 2. Tendermint consensus protocol illustrated: two-phase voting protocol and the locking and unlocking mechanism
Part 3. Weighted round-robin proposer selection algorithm used in Tendermint project
Any consensus agreement that is ultimately reached is the General Agreement, that is, the majority opinion. The consensus protocol on which the blockchain system operates is no exception. As a distributed system, the blockchain system aims to maintain the validity of the system. Intuitively, the validity of the blockchain system has two meanings: firstly, there is no ambiguity, and secondly, it can process requests to update its status. The former corresponds to the safety requirements of distributed systems, while the latter to the requirements of liveness. The validity of distributed systems is mainly maintained by consensus protocols, considering the multiple nodes and network communication involved in such systems may be unstable, which has brought huge challenges to the design of consensus protocols.

The semi-synchronous network model and Byzantine fault tolerance

Researchers of distributed systems characterize these problems that may occur in nodes and network communications using node failure models and network models. The fail-stop failure in node failure models refers to the situation where the node itself stops running due to configuration errors or other reasons, thus unable to go on with the consensus protocol. This type of failure will not cause side effects on other parts of the distributed system except that the node itself stops running. However, for such distributed systems as the public blockchain, when designing a consensus protocol, we still need to consider the evildoing intended by nodes besides their failure. These incidents are all included in the Byzantine Failure model, which covers all unexpected situations that may occur on the node, for example, passive downtime failures and any deviation intended by the nodes from the consensus protocol. For a better explanation, downtime failures refer to nodes’ passive running halt, and the Byzantine failure to any arbitrary deviation of nodes from the consensus protocol.
Compared with the node failure model which can be roughly divided into the passive and active models, the modeling of network communication is more difficult. The network itself suffers problems of instability and communication delay. Moreover, since all network communication is ultimately completed by the node which may have a downtime failure or a Byzantine failure in itself, it is usually difficult to define whether such failure arises from the node or the network itself when a node does not receive another node's network message. Although the network communication may be affected by many factors, the researchers found that the network model can be classified by the communication delay. For example, the node may fail to send data packages due to the fail-stop failure, and as a result, the corresponding communication delay is unknown and can be any value. According to the concept of communication delay, the network communication model can be divided into the following three categories:
  • The synchronous network model: There is a fixed, known upper bound of delay $\Delta$ in network communication. Under this model, the maximum delay of network communication between two nodes in the network is $\Delta$. Even if there is a malicious node, the communication delay arising therefrom does not exceed $\Delta$.
  • The asynchronous network model: There is an unknown delay in network communication, with the upper bound of the delay known, but the message can still be successfully delivered in the end. Under this model, the network communication delay between two nodes in the network can be any possible value, that is, a malicious node, if any, can arbitrarily extend the communication delay.
  • The semi-synchronous network model: Assume that there is a Global Stabilization Time (GST), before which it is an asynchronous network model and after which, a synchronous network model. In other words, there is a fixed, known upper bound of delay in network communication $\Delta$. A malicious node can delay the GST arbitrarily, and there will be no notification when no GST occurs. Under this model, the delay in the delivery of the message at the time $T$ is $\Delta + max(T, GST)$.
The synchronous network model is the most ideal network environment. Every message sent through the network can be received within a predictable time, but this model cannot reflect the real network communication situation. As in a real network, network failures are inevitable from time to time, causing the failure in the assumption of the synchronous network model. Yet the asynchronous network model goes to the other extreme and cannot reflect the real network situation either. Moreover, according to the FLP (Fischer-Lynch-Paterson) theorem, under this model if there is one node fails, no consensus protocol will reach consensus in a limited time. In contrast, the semi-synchronous network model can better describe the real-world network communication situation: network communication is usually synchronous or may return to normal after a short time. Such an experience must be no stranger to everyone: the web page, which usually gets loaded quite fast, opens slowly every now and then, and you need to try before you know the network is back to normal since there is usually no notification. The peer-to-peer (P2P) network communication, which is widely used in blockchain projects, also makes it possible for a node to send and receive information from multiple network channels. It is unrealistic to keep blocking the network information transmission of a node for a long time. Therefore, all the discussion below is under the semi-synchronous network model.
The design and selection of consensus protocols for public chain networks that allow nodes to dynamically join and leave need to consider possible Byzantine failures. Therefore, the consensus protocol of a public chain network is designed to guarantee the security and liveness of the network under the semi-synchronous network model on the premise of possible Byzantine failure. Researchers of distributed systems point out that to ensure the security and liveness of the system, the consensus protocol itself needs to meet three requirements:
  • Validity: The value reached by honest nodes must be the value proposed by one of them
  • Agreement: All honest nodes must reach consensus on the same value
  • Termination: The honest nodes must eventually reach consensus on a certain value
Validity and agreement can guarantee the security of the distributed system, that is, the honest nodes will never reach a consensus on a random value, and once the consensus is reached, all honest nodes agree on this value. Termination guarantees the liveness of distributed systems. A distributed system unable to reach consensus is useless.

The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem

In a semi-synchronous network, is it possible to design a Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that satisfies validity, agreement, and termination? How many Byzantine nodes can a system tolerance? The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem provide an answer for these two questions and have thus become the basic guidelines for the design of Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols.
Lamport, Shostak, and Pease abstracted the design of the consensus mechanism in the distributed system in 1982 as the Byzantine Generals Problem, which refers to such a situation as described below: several generals each lead the army to fight in the war, and their troops are stationed in different places. The generals must formulate a unified action plan for the victory. However, since the camps are far away from each other, they can only communicate with each other through the communication soldiers, or, in other words, they cannot appear on the same occasion at the same time to reach a consensus. Unfortunately, among the generals, there is a traitor or two who intend to undermine the unified actions of the loyal generals by sending the wrong information, and the communication soldiers cannot send the message to the destination by themselves. It is assumed that each communication soldier can prove the information he has brought comes from a certain general, just as in the case of a real BFT consensus protocol, each node has its public and private keys to establish an encrypted communication channel for each other to ensure that its messages will not be tampered with in the network communication, and the message receiver can also verify the sender of the message based thereon. As already mentioned, any consensus agreement ultimately reached represents the consensus of the majority. In the process of generals communicating with each other for an offensive or retreat, a general also makes decisions based on the majority opinion from the information collected by himself.
According to the research of Lamport et al, if there are 1/3 or more traitors in the node, the generals cannot reach a unified decision. For example, in the following figure, assume there are 3 generals and only 1 traitor. In the figure on the left, suppose that General C is the traitor, and A and B are loyal. If A wants to launch an attack and informs B and C of such intention, yet the traitor C sends a message to B, suggesting what he has received from A is a retreat. In this case, B can't decide as he doesn't know who the traitor is, and the information received is insufficient for him to decide. If A is a traitor, he can send different messages to B and C. Then C faithfully reports to B the information he received. At this moment as B receives conflicting information, he cannot make any decisions. In both cases, even if B had received consistent information, it would be impossible for him to spot the traitor between A and C. Therefore, it is obvious that in both situations shown in the figure below, the honest General B cannot make a choice.
According to this conclusion, when there are $n$ generals with at most $f$ traitors (n≤3f), the generals cannot reach a consensus if $n \leq 3f$; and with $n > 3f$, a consensus can be reached. This conclusion also suggests that when the number of Byzantine failures $f$ exceeds 1/3 of the total number of nodes $n$ in the system $f \ge n/3$ , no consensus will be reached on any consensus protocol among all honest nodes. Only when $f < n/3$, such condition is likely to happen, without loss of generality, and for the subsequent discussion on the consensus protocol, $ n \ge 3f + 1$ by default.
The conclusion reached by Lamport et al. on the Byzantine Generals Problem draws a line between the possible and the impossible in the design of the Byzantine fault tolerance consensus protocol. Within the possible range, how will the consensus protocol be designed? Can both the security and liveness of distributed systems be fully guaranteed? Brewer provided the answer in his CAP theorem in 2000. It indicated that a distributed system requires the following three basic attributes, but any distributed system can only meet two of the three at the same time.
  1. Consistency: When any node responds to the request, it must either provide the latest status information or provide no status information
  2. Availability: Any node in the system must be able to continue reading and writing
  3. Partition Tolerance: The system can tolerate the loss of any number of messages between two nodes and still function normally

https://preview.redd.it/1ozfwk7u7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=fdee6318de2cf1c021e636654766a7a0fe7b38b4
A distributed system aims to provide consistent services. Therefore, the consistency attribute requires that the two nodes in the system cannot provide conflicting status information or expired information, which can ensure the security of the distributed system. The availability attribute is to ensure that the system can continuously update its status and guarantee the availability of distributed systems. The partition tolerance attribute is related to the network communication delay, and, under the semi-synchronous network model, it can be the status before GST when the network is in an asynchronous status with an unknown delay in the network communication. In this condition, communicating nodes may not receive information from each other, and the network is thus considered to be in a partitioned status. Partition tolerance requires the distributed system to function normally even in network partitions.
The proof of the CAP theorem can be demonstrated with the following diagram. The curve represents the network partition, and each network has four nodes, distinguished by the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. The distributed system stores color information, and all the status information stored by all nodes is blue at first.
  1. Partition tolerance and availability mean the loss of consistency: When node 1 receives a new request in the leftmost image, the status changes to red, the status transition information of node 1 is passed to node 3, and node 3 also updates the status information to red. However, since node 3 and node 4 did not receive the corresponding information due to the network partition, the status information is still blue. At this moment, if the status information is queried through node 2, the blue returned by node 2 is not the latest status of the system, thus losing consistency.
  2. Partition tolerance and consistency mean the loss of availability: In the middle figure, the initial status information of all nodes is blue. When node 1 and node 3 update the status information to red, node 2 and node 4 maintain the outdated information as blue due to network partition. Also when querying status information through node 2, you need to first ask other nodes to make sure you’re in the latest status before returning status information as node 2 needs to follow consistency, but because of the network partition, node 2 cannot receive any information from node 1 or node 3. Then node 2 cannot determine whether it is in the latest status, so it chooses not to return any information, thus depriving the system of availability.
  3. Consistency and availability mean the loss of the partition tolerance: In the right-most figure, the system does not have a network partition at first, and both status updates and queries can go smoothly. However, once a network partition occurs, it degenerates into one of the previous two conditions. It is thus proved that any distributed system cannot have consistency, availability, and partition tolerance all at the same time.

https://preview.redd.it/456x2blv7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=550797373145b8fc1471bdde68ed5f8d45adb52b
The discovery of the CAP theorem seems to declare that the aforementioned goals of the consensus protocol is impossible. However, if you’re careful enough, you may find from the above that those are all extreme cases, such as network partitions that cause the failure of information transmission, which could be rare, especially in P2P network. In the second case, the system rarely returns the same information with node 2, and the general practice is to query other nodes and return the latest status as believed after a while, regardless of whether it has received the request information of other nodes. Therefore, although the CAP theorem points out that any distributed system cannot satisfy the three attributes at the same time, it is not a binary choice, as the designer of the consensus protocol can weigh up all the three attributes according to the needs of the distributed system. However, as the communication delay is always involved in the distributed system, one always needs to choose between availability and consistency while ensuring a certain degree of partition tolerance. Specifically, in the second case, it is about the value that node 2 returns: a probably outdated value or no value. Returning the possibly outdated value may violate consistency but guarantees availability; yet returning no value deprives the system of availability but guarantees its consistency. Tendermint consensus protocol to be introduced is consistent in this trade-off. In other words, it will lose availability in some cases.
The genius of Satoshi Nakamoto is that with constraints of the CAP theorem, he managed to reach a reliable Byzantine consensus in a distributed network by combining PoW mechanism, Satoshi Nakamoto consensus, and economic incentives with appropriate parameter configuration. Whether Bitcoin's mechanism design solves the Byzantine Generals Problem has remained a dispute among academicians. Garay, Kiayias, and Leonardos analyzed the link between Bitcoin mechanism design and the Byzantine consensus in detail in their paper The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. In simple terms, the Satoshi Consensus is a probabilistic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that depends on such conditions as the network communication environment and the proportion of malicious nodes' hashrate. When the proportion of malicious nodes’ hashrate does not exceed 1/2 in a good network communication environment, the Satoshi Consensus can reliably solve the Byzantine consensus problem in a distributed environment. However, when the environment turns bad, even with the proportion within 1/2, the Satoshi Consensus may still fail to reach a reliable conclusion on the Byzantine consensus problem. It is worth noting that the quality of the network environment is relative to Bitcoin's block interval. The 10-minute block generation interval of the Bitcoin can ensure that the system is in a good network communication environment in most cases, given the fact that the broadcast time of a block in the distributed network is usually just several seconds. In addition, economic incentives can motivate most nodes to actively comply with the agreement. It is thus considered that with the current Bitcoin network parameter configuration and mechanism design, the Bitcoin mechanism design has reliably solved the Byzantine Consensus problem in the current network environment.

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, PBFT

It is not an easy task to design the Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol in a semi-synchronous network. The first practically usable Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol is the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) designed by Castro and Liskov in 1999, the first of its kind with polynomial complexity. For a distributed system with $n$ nodes, the communication complexity is $O(n2$.) Castro and Liskov showed in the paper that by transforming centralized file system into a distributed one using the PBFT protocol, the overwall performance was only slowed down by 3%. In this section we will briefly introduce the PBFT protocol, paving the way for further detailed explanations of the Tendermint protocol and the improvements of the Tendermint protocol.
The PBFT protocol that includes $n=3f+1$ nodes can tolerate up to $f$ Byzantine nodes. In the original paper of PBFT, full connection is required among all the $n$ nodes, that is, any two of the n nodes must be connected. All the nodes of the network jointly maintain the system status through network communication. In the Bitcoin network, a node can participate in or exit the consensus process through hashrate mining at any time, which is managed by the administrator, and the PFBT protocol needs to determine all the participating nodes before the protocol starts. All nodes in the PBFT protocol are divided into two categories, master nodes, and slave nodes. There is only one master node at any time, and all nodes take turns to be the master node. All nodes run in a rotation process called View, in each of which the master node will be reelected. The master node selection algorithm in PBFT is very simple: all nodes become the master node in turn by the index number. In each view, all nodes try to reach a consensus on the system status. It is worth mentioning that in the PBFT protocol, each node has its own digital signature key pair. All sent messages (including request messages from the client) need to be signed to ensure the integrity of the message in the network and the traceability of the message itself. (You can determine who sent a message based on the digital signature).
The following figure shows the basic flow of the PBFT consensus protocol. Assume that the current view’s master node is node 0. Client C initiates a request to the master node 0. After the master node receives the request, it broadcasts the request to all slave nodes that process the request of client C and return the result to the client. After the client receives f+1 identical results from different nodes (based on the signature value), the result can be taken as the final result of the entire operation. Since the system can have at most f Byzantine nodes, at least one of the f+1 results received by the client comes from an honest node, and the security of the consensus protocol guarantees that all honest nodes will reach consensus on the same status. So, the feedback from 1 honest node is enough to confirm that the corresponding request has been processed by the system.

https://preview.redd.it/sz8so5ly7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=d472810e76bbc202e91a25ef29a51e109a576554
For the status synchronization of all honest nodes, the PBFT protocol has two constraints on each node: on one hand, all nodes must start from the same status, and on the other, the status transition of all nodes must be definite, that is, given the same status and request, the results after the operation must be the same. Under these two constraints, as long as the entire system agrees on the processing order of all transactions, the status of all honest nodes will be consistent. This is also the main purpose of the PBFT protocol: to reach a consensus on the order of transactions between all nodes, thereby ensuring the security of the entire distributed system. In terms of availability, the PBFT consensus protocol relies on a timeout mechanism to find anomalies in the consensus process and start the View Change protocol in time to try to reach a consensus again.
The figure above shows a simplified workflow of the PBFT protocol. Where C is the client, 0, 1, 2, and 3 represent 4 nodes respectively. Specifically, 0 is the master node of the current view, 1, 2, 3 are slave nodes, and node 3 is faulty. Under normal circumstances, the PBFT consensus protocol reaches consensus on the order of transactions between nodes through a three-phase protocol. These three phases are respectively: Pre-Prepare, Prepare, and Commit:
  • The master node of the pre-preparation node is responsible for assigning the sequence number to the received client request, and broadcasting the message to the slave node. The message contains the hash value of the client request d, the sequence number of the current viewv, the sequence number n assigned by the master node to the request, and the signature information of the master nodesig. The scheme design of the PBFT protocol separates the request transmission from the request sequencing process, and the request transmission is not to be discussed here. The slave node that receives the message accepts the message after confirming the message is legitimate and enter preparation phase. The message in this step checks the basic signature, hash value, current view, and, most importantly, whether the master node has given the same sequence number to other request from the client in the current view.
  • In preparation, the slave node broadcasts the message to all nodes (including itself), indicating that it assigns the sequence number n to the client request with the hash value d under the current view v, with its signaturesig as proof. The node receiving the message will check the correctness of the signature, the matching of the view sequence number, etc., and accept the legitimate message. When the PRE-PREPARE message about a client request (from the main node) received by a node matches with the PREPARE from 2f slave nodes, the system has agreed on the sequence number requested by the client in the current view. This means that 2f+1 nodes in the current view agree with the request sequence number. Since it contains information from at most fmalicious nodes, there are a total of f+1 honest nodes that have agreed with the allocation of the request sequence number. With f malicious nodes, there are a total of 2f+1 honest nodes, so f+1represents the majority of the honest nodes, which is the consensus of the majority mentioned before.
  • After the node (including the master node and the slave node) receives a PRE-PREPARE message requested by the client and 2f PREPARE messages, the message is broadcast across the network and enters the submission phase. This message is used to indicate that the node has observed that the whole network has reached a consensus on the sequence number allocation of the request message from the client. When the node receives 2f+1 COMMIT messages, there are at least f+1 honest nodes, that is, most of the honest nodes have observed that the entire network has reached consensus on the arrangement of sequence numbers of the request message from the client. The node can process the client request and return the execution result to the client at this moment.
Roughly speaking, in the pre-preparation phase, the master node assigns a sequence number to all new client requests. During preparation, all nodes reach consensus on the client request sequence number in this view, while in submission the consistency of the request sequence number of the client in different views is to be guaranteed. In addition, the design of the PBFT protocol itself does not require the request message to be submitted by the assigned sequence number, but out of order. That can improve the efficiency of the implementation of the consensus protocol. Yet, the messages are still processed by the sequence number assigned by the consensus protocol for the consistency of the distributed system.
In the three-phase protocol execution of the PBFT protocol, in addition to maintaining the status information of the distributed system, the node itself also needs to log all kinds of consensus information it receives. The gradual accumulation of logs will consume considerable system resources. Therefore, the PBFT protocol additionally defines checkpoints to help the node deal with garbage collection. You can set a checkpoint every 100 or 1000 sequence numbers according to the request sequence number. After the client request at the checkpoint is executed, the node broadcasts messages throughout the network, indicating that after the node executes the client request with sequence number n, the hash value of the system status is d, and it is vouched by its own signature sig. After 2f+1 matching CHECKPOINT messages (one of which can come from the node itself) are received, most of the honest nodes in the entire network have reached a consensus on the system status after the execution of the client request with the sequence numbern, and then you can clear all relevant log records of client requests with the sequence number less than n. The node needs to save these2f+1 CHECKPOINTmessages as proof of the legitimate status at this moment, and the corresponding checkpoint is called a stable checkpoint.
The three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol can ensure the consistency of the processing order of the client request, and the checkpoint mechanism is set to help nodes perform garbage collection and further ensures the status consistency of the distributed system, both of which can guarantee the security of the distributed system aforementioned. How is the availability of the distributed system guaranteed? In the semi-synchronous network model, a timeout mechanism is usually introduced, which is related to delays in the network environment. It is assumed that the network delay has a known upper bound after GST. In such condition, an initial value is usually set according to the network condition of the system deployed. In case of a timeout event, besides the corresponding processing flow triggered, additional mechanisms will be activated to readjust the waiting time. For example, an algorithm like TCP's exponential back off can be adopted to adjust the waiting time after a timeout event.
To ensure the availability of the system in the PBFT protocol, a timeout mechanism is also introduced. In addition, due to the potential the Byzantine failure in the master node itself, the PBFT protocol also needs to ensure the security and availability of the system in this case. When the Byzantine failure occurs in the master node, for example, when the slave node does not receive the PRE-PREPARE message or the PRE-PREPARE message sent by the master node from the master node within the time window and is thus determined to be illegitimate, the slave node can broadcast to the entire network, indicating that the node requests to switch to the new view with sequence number v+1. n indicates the request sequence number corresponding to the latest stable checkpoint local to the node, and C is to prove the stable checkpoint 2f+1 legitimate CHECKPOINT messages as aforementioned. After the latest stable checkpoint and before initiating the VIEWCHANGE message, the system may have reached a consensus on the sequence numbers of some request messages in the previous view. To ensure the consistency of these request sequence numbers to be switched in the view, the VIEWCHANGE message needs to carry this kind of the information to the new view, which is also the meaning of the P field in the message. P contains all the client request messages collected at the node with a request sequence number greater than n and the proof that a consensus has been reached on the sequence number in the node: the legitimate PRE-PREPARE message of the request and 2f matching PREPARE messages. When the master node in view v+1 collects 2f+1 VIEWCHANGE messages, it can broadcast the NEW-VIEW message and take the entire system into a new view. For the security of the system in combination with the three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol, the construction rules of the NEW-VIEW information are designed in a quite complicated way. You can refer to the original paper of PBFT for more details.

https://preview.redd.it/x5efdc908m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=97b4fd879d0ec668ee0990ea4cadf476167a2948
VIEWCHANGE contains a lot of information. For example, C contains 2f+1 signature information, P contains several signature sets, and each set has 2f+1 signature. At least 2f+1 nodes need to send a VIEWCHANGE message before prompting the system to enter the next new view, and that means, in addition to the complex logic of constructing the information of VIEWCHANGE and NEW-VIEW, the communication complexity of the view conversion protocol is $O(n2$.) Such complexity also limits the PBFT protocol to support only a few nodes, and when there are 100 nodes, it is usually too complex to practically deploy PBFT. It is worth noting that in some materials the communication complexity of the PBFT protocol is inappropriately attributed to the full connection between n nodes. By changing the fully connected network topology to the P2P network topology based on distributed hash tables commonly used in blockchain projects, high communication complexity caused by full connection can be conveniently solved, yet still, it is difficult to improve the communication complexity during the view conversion process. In recent years, researchers have proposed to reduce the amount of communication in this step by adopting aggregate signature scheme. With this technology, 2f+1 signature information can be compressed into one, thereby reducing the communication volume during view change.
submitted by coinexchain to u/coinexchain [link] [comments]

The key to mass crypto adoption: generosity.

You want mass adoption. So do I. Here's why I know generosity is the key:
  1. Setting up wallets, and navigating exchange's order books, conversion rates..."what the hell is a Satoshi"... it's completely overwhelming for people. "Simply sign up to this website you don't know anything about, enter in your bank account information, send a picture of yourself and a copy of your ID, then in forty-seven additional steps, you'll hold a crypto currency built on a technology you don't understand!"
Instead, have your curious-but-uninvested friends download a wallet, and send them some crypto... no strings attached. Why?
  1. This will show them the speed and security of the transaction, give them the pleasure of holding a piece of the future, and will get them excited about checking the progress and value of the tech, which is most of the fun of all of this anyways. It won't take long for them to realize that if they really want to get "rich" (which let's be honest, is why most of us got into this in the first place), they'll have to buy more.
  2. The complication and confusion of exchanges won't be front-loaded, and will be something they are more likely to overcome when they already have the currency, and must learn how to exchange it if they ever want to sell it. By receiving the crypto on the front-end, they're given a taste of the addictive fun of it.
  3. Bragging about how much money crypto is/will be making you? Time to put your money where your mouth is. My introduction to BTC was when a friend sent me 50 USD worth. Like it was nothing! Of course it wasn't nothing, he's not a wealthy man- but I thought "... if he shared this with me, this thing must have been very good to him." I soon started reading more about BTC, and I bought more.
Offer to donate to your favorite charity, in BITCOIN (not your obscure alt). If they accept, MAKE GOOD ON YOUR OFFER. What charity wants to leave money on the table? If they don't know how to accept BTC, be a generous person with your time and talents, and show them how to accept BTC donations. This will:
  1. Pave the way for future donations. Once your favorite charity has the wallet and the know-how, the hard work is done. Receiving one BTC donation and receiving one-hundred donations is the same amount of work.
  2. Allow donations from those of us that don't have much liquid fiat on hand, but do have some crypto.
  3. Allow people to profitably and unashamedly give small amounts. Someone might feel stupid writing and mailing a check for a very small amount even though it's all they can give, and sometimes the cataloging and cashing of that check might actually cost the charity more than the donation itself. Crypto makes the giving of even minuscule amounts enjoyable for everyone.

TLDR: STOP BEING A MOONBOI AND START BEING A DECENT HUMAN BEING YA GREEDY BASTARD.

submitted by Uggamouse to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Dissecting The Moon Faucets, and When You Should Claim Them For Optimal Coin Acquisition

DISCLAIMER: I apologize in advance for the tables and graphs being in imgur. I have no idea how to input my data so that you can see it in the reddit client and honestly, this is a lot of data. I recommend opening my figures in a new tab as I talk about it so you don’t have to flip back and forth throughout tabs. Now that that’s out of the way, welcome to the show.
I feel like everyone uses or has used Coinpot and the “moon faucets” in order to obtain their first Doge. I know that I’m in that stage and I had a lot of questions about it, especially about how often I should claim my faucets. I got various answers but the general sentiment was that there was a certain amount of time (<1 hour) that I should be claiming in order to optimize my gains. As somebody who wanted a definitive answer and to analyze some data in a field that is important to me, I set out for some answers.
To collect my data, I sat in front of my computer while all five of the moon faucets operated. Every minute I would write down the value of the given currency at that specific time. I hoped to gain some sort of curve, as that was what I was told to expect, but my curiosity overcame the ABSOLUTE BOREDOM of sitting there and taking notes on what was going on. I recorded all of the values and after an hour, I came up with this data. This is the general stuff, but I will cut each of the graphs down and analyze each faucet separately. Keep in mind that I am in the Eastern United States, as I hear your region makes a difference.
The Data:
Here's the link with my Raw Data: https://imgur.com/a/6dmmc So that’s a lot of raw numbers, so I’m going to analyze each of the faucets separately.
Dogecoin:
Here's the graph: https://imgur.com/a/khPiM
The jagged line represents the amount of Dogecoin, and the linear line of best fit represents the average rate of Dogecoin, if it were linear. This will become important a little later. What we see here is exactly what I was told to expect: a series of lines which very much represent a curve if we squint our eyes a little. Referring back to the data table, we can see how drastic the reduction of generation is within thirty minutes. From 0 to 2 minutes, we see a growth of .02 doge, and a similar growth of .02 doge in the next 2 minutes elapsed. Eventually however, the generation slows to the point at which we have to wait 7 whole minutes to generate a measly .02 doge. The drip rate went from .01 doge/minute (DpM) to .0028 DpM. That’s a 72 percent decrease in drip rate. If we extend the same analysis to the next 30 minutes, we can observe a further drop to a staggering .002 DpM. This massive decline is exactly what we would have expected.
Bitcoin Cash:
Here's the graph: https://imgur.com/a/xwst5
The story is pretty similar with Bitcoin Cash. The rate starts relatively high but levels out as time elapses. The first thirty minutes has a linear rate of increase of .000000047 Cash per Minute (CpM) and the back thirty minutes we see a decrease of the rate to exactly .0000000093 BcM, which again is an almost 81% decrease in production from the first 30 minutes.
Dash:
Here's the graph: https://imgur.com/a/RerX7
Is there really anything to say here that is out of the ordinary about these figures? They’re exactly what we figured they’d be, and follow the trend of reducing the rate of acquisition as time elapses. Over the first 30 minutes, the linear rate of Dash per Minute (DpM) is .000000047 , and in the second 30 minutes, the linear rate of acquisition is about .0000000197 DpM. This equates to about a 48 percent decrease in linear acquisition rate.
Litecoin:
Here's the graph: https://imgur.com/a/fJzF6
The Moon Litecoin faucet is the same old same old, with this whole curve going on. The amount of Litecoin gained over an hour (LpM) is shown by the line with a slope of around 8.779x+96.361 LpM. The LpM rate for the first thirty minutes was 12.9 LpM and the rate for the latter 30 was 5.733 LpM. This is about a 56% decline in LpM.
Bitcoin:
Here's the last single faucet graph: https://imgur.com/a/gtiLw
Last but not least, the Moon Bitcoin faucet. All measurements are in Satoshi, because if they were in Bitcoin, I wouldn’t be telling you all about how large the amounts of BTC I was making. You know the drill. The Bitcoin per minute, of BCpM, of the first 30 minutes is .266 BCpM, and the BCpM of the latter 30 is .133, or a 50% decrease in acquisition rate.
Okay! That was a doozy. Now that we have established that all of the different faucets decrease their rates over time, we need to compare them side by side, to get an idea as to when we should be cashing out. To do this, I went ahead and multiplied all of the data by its respective value in USD, as of March 6th, 2018, at around 4 o’clock. This is what I came up with:
Table: https://imgur.com/a/PyOpP
Graph: https://imgur.com/a/HBnI2
Just a reminder, these are all conversions to USD, so YMMV as to your currency if it happened to be different. There are so many things to talk about this graph. Like what in the world happened to Dash? Why is so little Dash given out through the course of an hour? It also seems very interesting that the Dogecoin, Bitcoin Cash, and Litecoin distribution rates are all the same. The Bitcoin faucet seems to have the highest rate, which is interesting as well. So what did I learn today?
*If I could only run one moon faucet, I should run Moon Bitcoin, statistically speaking. *The optimal time to claim coin seems to be around 33 minutes, when the Bitcoin kicks up and almost all of the faucets see an increase in production interval. *More data may be needed to further extrapolate this, as the rates are neither linear nor exponential in growth. Averages can be found through linear lines of best fit, but they are poor indicators of eventual decay.
Thanks for reading my writeup! I’f love to hear what you all think. Did you love it? Did you hate it? Is there a fundamental experimental error? Any suggestions for what I should do next? I’m here to learn from this great community and wanted to give back to those who were so hospitable to me for the four or so days I’ve been a Shibe.
Oh yeah, and 1 Đ = 1 Đ.
submitted by TimbheadLarry to dogecoin [link] [comments]

OnePageX: King of all Exchange

♢ Introduction
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. Cryptocurrencies are alternative to fiat currency and they are decentralized: can be easily transferred or traded against each other on crypto exchange platforms without a central authority moderation.
In 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto was credited for the development of Bitcoin, the world's first ever decentralized cryptocurrency. It wasn't the first time an attempt would be made in developing a digital currency, in 1983 the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash. Later, in 1995, he implemented it through Digicash, an early form of cryptographic electronic payments which required user software in order to withdraw notes from a bank and designate specific encrypted keys before it can be sent to a recipient. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or a third party.
Following the development of Bitcoin by the anonymous cryptographer Satoshi Nakamoto (fictitious name), over 4000 Altcoins or crypto currencies had been developed in the likes of Ethereum, Litecoin, EOS,XRP and the rest. Each of this new crypto currencies trends the same path as Bitcoin with all operating on a decentralzed platforms using the power of the blockchain technology.
The emergence of decentralized digital currency allows easy transfer of assets and execution of various transactions without moderation from centralized authorities. Digital currency threatened to disrupt the world centralize economy. Centralized financial institutions like banks are wary of the threat digital currency like bitcoin carries.
♢ Blockchain
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, called a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database. Blockchain is an open distribute ledger that helps record transactions history between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. By design, Blockchain is resistant to the modification of the data it stores, as each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data, making it impossible to be compromised.
♢Cryptocurrency Exchange
Developing a digital currency is a thing, being able to trade it for value is another, and, that is where crypto exchange platform comes in.cryptocurrency-exchange-rate-panel-3d-260nw-795136543.jpg A crypto Exchange, is simply-put, where digital currencies or crypto currencies are traded. It is a decentralized digital marketplace that allows the trading of crypto currencies against other digital currencies or against conventional fiat currency. Of a truth, we have vast number of exchanges currently in operation in the crypto sphere but all not excluding one are doing same thing, operating in the same manner.
And OnePageX is is just one of the crypto exchange but, with unique features that set it aside from the rest.
♢ Concepts
A crypto currency exchange can be:
■ A brick-and-mortal business
It is a brick-and-mortal business when it exchanges traditional payment methods and digital currencies.
■ As an online business
In this case, electronically transferred money are exchange for digital currencies.
♢ Philosophy Behind OnePageX Cryptocurrency Exchange
OnePageX is not doing something special, but it's doing somethings different. OnePageX is an exchange platform built to execute digital currencies transfer and conversion with simplest simplicity. One thing OnePageX is doing different to other exchange is, all processes of transfer and conversion of digital currencies are carried out on a page and users dont need to sign up to trade on OnePageX which further strengthen the security of user private information. Binance, Huobi, and OKEX are largely regarded as the largest cryptocurrency exchanges, but none can boast of the 150+ choice of cryptocurrencies available for trade on OnePageX.
♢ OnePageX Vision
To enable crypto currencies trade on a simple interface.
♢Key Features of OnePageX
• No Registration!
Who needs to register?. OnePageX allows on-the-go exchange process without need for registration helping strengthen anonymity of it users. With no private details needed to be provided, identity of users is strictly concealed. With no registration, transactions can be carried out on the go, which make things a lot easier, faster and secure.
• OneBox Widget
OnePageX widget called OneBox which can be integrated into websites just by copy-pasting a snippet. This feature automatically makes OnePageX inerface to be readily available on these websites, therby allowing users of the websites access to quick cryptocurrency exchange.
• OnePage Transactions
The simplicity by which transactions are executed on OnePageX is adoring. Simple as you can think, multiple transactions are executed on a single page, and this transactions are saved in the form of cards that users can come back to and use any time.
• Selection
Since bitcoin inception in 2009, over 4,000 other Altcoins had been developed. Over 150+ cryto currencies are available for selection on OnePageX more than any other cryptocurrency exchange giving traders wide range of option of cryptocurrency to trade. OnePageX integrates with other exchange to find the best price for any given cryptocurrency.
♢ How to use OnePageX
OnePageX is the easiest to use out of any cryptocurrency exchanges.
Pick an asset to convert to. Enter a withdrawal address. Click “Start Exchange” A card will appear with a deposit address. Simply deposit to that address and you are done.
Each individual card will display a live transaction status that will let the user know about their transaction.source
♢ Benefits of Using OnePageX
• Cost efficient • Time efficient • Friendly interface • High security • Easy navigation • Large collection of cryptocurrencies.
NOTE: Transaction fee for 2018 is 0%
♢ Use case and Application
Kenneth Bridge is the C.E.O of an online shopping mall who is looking to use the strength of the growing crypto market and also adopt the blockchain technology to his companys' advantage. At their executives meeting, Mr Bridge proposed the adoption of cryptocurrencies for shopping on their online mall. The tasks remain;
1.How to bring a crypto exchange on their already existing website 2.Since customers will be buying goods with different crypto currencies, an exchange with the largest collection if not all crypto currencies is needed.
The Option of OnePageX was put on the table. An exchange with the largest collection of cryptocurrencies (150+), and also has a widget that can be integrated on the company's already existing website that will allow customers carry out crypto transaction in a fast, efficient and simple way on their website. OnePageX was adopted.
♢ Conclusion
OnePageX is undisputedly a step ahead it rival exchanges. Built to execute transactions in the easiest manner ever witnessed in the world of exchange and with it no registration feature which further strengthens users anonymity, will in no doubt leads to it mass adoption. By no arguement, OnePageX is taking crypto exchange to a new level.
More Information & Resources: OnePageX Website: https://onepagex.com/ OnePageX Steemit: https://steemit.com/@onepagex OnePageX Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useonepagex OnePageX Twitter: https://twitter.com/OnePageExchange OnePageX Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/onepageexchange/
submitted by Tonyryce to u/Tonyryce [link] [comments]

OnePageX: King of all Exchange

♢ Introduction
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. Cryptocurrencies are alternative to fiat currency and they are decentralized: can be easily transferred or traded against each other on crypto exchange platforms without a central authority moderation.
In 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto was credited for the development of Bitcoin, the world's first ever decentralized cryptocurrency. It wasn't the first time an attempt would be made in developing a digital currency, in 1983 the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash. Later, in 1995, he implemented it through Digicash, an early form of cryptographic electronic payments which required user software in order to withdraw notes from a bank and designate specific encrypted keys before it can be sent to a recipient. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or a third party.
Following the development of Bitcoin by the anonymous cryptographer Satoshi Nakamoto (fictitious name), over 4000 Altcoins or crypto currencies had been developed in the likes of Ethereum, Litecoin, EOS,XRP and the rest. Each of this new crypto currencies trends the same path as Bitcoin with all operating on a decentralzed platforms using the power of the blockchain technology.
The emergence of decentralized digital currency allows easy transfer of assets and execution of various transactions without moderation from centralized authorities. Digital currency threatened to disrupt the world centralize economy. Centralized financial institutions like banks are wary of the threat digital currency like bitcoin carries.
♢ Blockchain
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, called a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database. Blockchain is an open distribute ledger that helps record transactions history between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. By design, Blockchain is resistant to the modification of the data it stores, as each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data, making it impossible to be compromised.
♢Cryptocurrency Exchange
Developing a digital currency is a thing, being able to trade it for value is another, and, that is where crypto exchange platform comes in.cryptocurrency-exchange-rate-panel-3d-260nw-795136543.jpg A crypto Exchange, is simply-put, where digital currencies or crypto currencies are traded. It is a decentralized digital marketplace that allows the trading of crypto currencies against other digital currencies or against conventional fiat currency. Of a truth, we have vast number of exchanges currently in operation in the crypto sphere but all not excluding one are doing same thing, operating in the same manner.
And OnePageX is is just one of the crypto exchange but, with unique features that set it aside from the rest.
♢ Concepts
A crypto currency exchange can be:
■ A brick-and-mortal business
It is a brick-and-mortal business when it exchanges traditional payment methods and digital currencies.
■ As an online business
In this case, electronically transferred money are exchange for digital currencies.
♢ Philosophy Behind OnePageX Cryptocurrency Exchange
OnePageX is not doing something special, but it's doing somethings different. OnePageX is an exchange platform built to execute digital currencies transfer and conversion with simplest simplicity. One thing OnePageX is doing different to other exchange is, all processes of transfer and conversion of digital currencies are carried out on a page and users dont need to sign up to trade on OnePageX which further strengthen the security of user private information. Binance, Huobi, and OKEX are largely regarded as the largest cryptocurrency exchanges, but none can boast of the 150+ choice of cryptocurrencies available for trade on OnePageX.
♢ OnePageX Vision
To enable crypto currencies trade on a simple interface.
♢Key Features of OnePageX
• No Registration!
Who needs to register?. OnePageX allows on-the-go exchange process without need for registration helping strengthen anonymity of it users. With no private details needed to be provided, identity of users is strictly concealed. With no registration, transactions can be carried out on the go, which make things a lot easier, faster and secure.
• OneBox Widget
OnePageX widget called OneBox which can be integrated into websites just by copy-pasting a snippet. This feature automatically makes OnePageX inerface to be readily available on these websites, therby allowing users of the websites access to quick cryptocurrency exchange.
• OnePage Transactions
The simplicity by which transactions are executed on OnePageX is adoring. Simple as you can think, multiple transactions are executed on a single page, and this transactions are saved in the form of cards that users can come back to and use any time.
• Selection
Since bitcoin inception in 2009, over 4,000 other Altcoins had been developed. Over 150+ cryto currencies are available for selection on OnePageX more than any other cryptocurrency exchange giving traders wide range of option of cryptocurrency to trade. OnePageX integrates with other exchange to find the best price for any given cryptocurrency.
♢ How to use OnePageX
OnePageX is the easiest to use out of any cryptocurrency exchanges.
Pick an asset to convert to. Enter a withdrawal address. Click “Start Exchange” A card will appear with a deposit address. Simply deposit to that address and you are done.
Each individual card will display a live transaction status that will let the user know about their transaction.source
♢ Benefits of Using OnePageX
• Cost efficient • Time efficient • Friendly interface • High security • Easy navigation • Large collection of cryptocurrencies.
NOTE: Transaction fee for 2018 is 0%
♢ Use case and Application
Kenneth Bridge is the C.E.O of an online shopping mall who is looking to use the strength of the growing crypto market and also adopt the blockchain technology to his companys' advantage. At their executives meeting, Mr Bridge proposed the adoption of cryptocurrencies for shopping on their online mall. The tasks remain;
1.How to bring a crypto exchange on their already existing website 2.Since customers will be buying goods with different crypto currencies, an exchange with the largest collection if not all crypto currencies is needed.
The Option of OnePageX was put on the table. An exchange with the largest collection of cryptocurrencies (150+), and also has a widget that can be integrated on the company's already existing website that will allow customers carry out crypto transaction in a fast, efficient and simple way on their website. OnePageX was adopted.
♢ Conclusion
OnePageX is undisputedly a step ahead it rival exchanges. Built to execute transactions in the easiest manner ever witnessed in the world of exchange and with it no registration feature which further strengthens users anonymity, will in no doubt leads to it mass adoption. By no arguement, OnePageX is taking crypto exchange to a new level.
More Information & Resources: OnePageX Website: https://onepagex.com/ OnePageX Steemit: https://steemit.com/@onepagex OnePageX Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useonepagex OnePageX Twitter: https://twitter.com/OnePageExchange OnePageX Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/onepageexchange/
submitted by Tonyryce to u/Tonyryce [link] [comments]

Consensus 2018 Report (Continuous Updates Through May 17th)

Happy Wednesday! We are live!
Consensus Short Statistics
State of Blockchain
Don Tapscott
-"We are entering a new era of trust"
-Generally remarked on the benefits of blockchain. Identified the 7 types of crypto assets (Currencies, Collectibles, Stablecoins, Natural Asset Tokens [Representing minerals, water], Utility Tokens, and Security Tokens.)
FedEx
As I remarked in my comment earlier, FedEx is incredibly bullish on blockchain technology generally, but specifically in it's applications for cross-border shipping and asset-tracking. As I learned, the definition of what constitutes a "coffee cup" differs from place to place. Using blockchain, Smith says, FedEx can protect against unforeseen obstacles at customs. "Information about the package is as important as the package itself," he claims, further adding that the risk of experimenting with cryptocurrency is "de minimis" when compared to its alternative. During the session, FedEx unveiled "Trons", bluetooth-enabled sensors integrated with blockchain first announced in 2016.
Jim Bullard, St. Louis Fed
Fantastic, informational lecture regarding the history of currency and how civilizations have reacted to various implementations. Generally, Bullard notes, humans want a uniform currency. He compared cryptos with state/provincial bank notes, citing the problems faced with exchange, regulation, and value verification. We haven't yet realized this problem with cryptocurrencies since the market cap is relatively small.
Insightful statistics about and charts comparing GDP to the inflation/exchange rates of the DollaYen. Surprisingly, the volatility charts look worse than Bitcoin. Catch all of these when the videos are released later this week.
Summarizing, Bullard claimed that there will be a plurality of coins sharing the ecosystem, each providing a specific use. The Federal Reserve will likely mint a fiat/cryptocurrency that represents a stable stock of U.S. dollars sometime in the mid term future.
Jed McCaleb
I spoke with Jed of the Stellar Foundation. This is a Bitcoin subreddit, so I'll skip this part. You can find the full transcript of his thoughts here.
Charlie Lee and David Schwarz
Both spoke on a panel about interoperability between Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple, etc. Developers better understand that most cryptocurrencies can interface as long as they use the same "hooks". Schwartz compared this ideal system akin to TCP-IP; a minimal framework making as few technological demands as necessary.
An ecosystem with multiple coins utilizing different security protocols and consensus mechanisms is "good for Bitcoin". In a theoretical world where power becomes abundant, what happens to PoW? We want the ability to migrate to a new protocol without upending the entire financial system. In a world where security is compromised, redundancy is critical.
Lee sees UI as the next significant hurdle. Not for speculators, but for mom-and-pop investors without much tech savvy.
TxTenna
-Hardware to expand and facilitate mesh networks.
-Even if you own Bitcoin, transfer can be censored/inhibited through the network communicating the transaction to the blockchain.
-Using mesh networks, we bypass many of these constraints dealing directly with sovereign ISP's.
-This is fantastic for Bitcoin users in 3rd world countries/those with oppressive regimes. I will leave this to your imagination.
RSK
-Smart contract platform on top of the Bitcoin protocol. -Ecosystem challenges (Tx costs, security, scalability) -Tx cost is $0.035 - +10% hashing power -Up to 100 tps. -Next -Payment channels (Lumino) -Predicability (Fiat-based fees) -Decentralization (BTC and RSK full-node rewards) -Interoperability (inter-blockchain integration) 
I'm sorry if you find this post lacking/off topic. Attempted to refine down to only what might be relevant to a Bitcoin trader. Even if Bitcoin isn't specifically mentioned, many of these innovations/philosophies will apply to the crypto space generally and, thus, to Bitcoin.
It's already the end of Day 2 and I'm finishing the write-up for D1. I'll compile D2 and D3 for brevity's sake. Most of this news is now relatively (a day) old.
Thanks for your attention and help supporting the crypto revolution.
P.S. "Where is my Consensus boost!? I thought BTC should be $10k by now!"
Historically, the Consensus Boost happens several weeks after the event, likely as news disseminates.
OH FUCK
I FORGOT
Joseph Lubin bets BlockChain Capital's Jimmy Song, "any amount of Bitcoin" that blockchain will have widespread enterprise adoption within 5 years
Day 2
Will try an update. Sitting through, eToro will be opening business in the United States, launching a wallet shortly after. Users can view successful traders' profiles and subscribe to their trades, copying them second-by-second.
Circle announces a USD stablecoin and crypto wallet.
HTC announces a crypto phone.
Deloitte releases preview of cryptocurrency report, shows majority of companies pursuing blockchain.
-"But this is just blockchain". Yes, and a rising tide lifts all ships.
The Magical Crypto Friends Live From Consensus. Warning, shitty audio.
-Founders of several currencies (Litecoin, Monero) discuss Buffett, Bitcoin, and other BS. 56 minute duration. For the hardcore.
Day 3
Alright!
Ledger
-Announcing a consortium for investors/institutions who manage multiple accounts. Today, Ledger Nano S is really only useful to the individual owner.
-Called, "Komino"? (Japanese Script).
-Isn't this compromising the dream of Satoshi? Speaker thinks no. The dream is that everyone can use Bitcoin as they see fit. Large companies can have positions in Bitcoin without changing the life of crypto maximalists who can still use cryptocurrencies.
-Bankers have the right to "Go full Moon and lambos".
Polymath
-The next big wave in crypto are Security Tokens.
-Real estate, equity in companies.
-Amongst crypto VC founders, Security Tokens will comprise 50-90% of the crypto market in the coming years. Currently, the share is approximately 1%.
-You can create a security token right now. Log on here and try the demo.
-First blockchain telegram to reach 50,000 users.
-Integrating with tZero. All new securities should have liquidity out of the box.
-ST-20. A security token standard designed to ameliorate many of the issues with fragmented ICO's.
-Launching a ST Venture Fund, "Polymath Capital".
-New CoinMarketCap competitor. "Tokens.com". Perhaps they'll finally force some innovation on the CMC side.
-Polymath 2.0 TestNet now live.
BlockStack
-Internet 3.0 is here. Mesh networks, decentralized data, crypto assets. We are not storing data with companies anymore, we are personally responsible. One day, we will have a universal ID that removes the need for a rolodex of passwords, usernames, and security questions.
-BlockStack members advise on Silicon Valley. Fun fact.
-Infrastructure and speculative investment grew from less than $100B in January, to $100B in May, and, finally, over $600B by November.
-Sounds like a dApp talk. They're making iTunes for dApps. I'll come back when he says, "Bitcoin".
Jack Dorsey and Elizabeth Stark
-Jack first heard of Bitcoin in St. Louis via a group of Cypherpunks.
-Appreciated the complexity of code, but didn't realize the potential just yet.
-Met some engineers who wanted to build a Bitcoin solution for Square. Buyers/sellers could accept Bitcoin without knowing they were using Bitcoin.
-Community "felt like Usenet" as it developed between 2014 and 2017. "Felt electric".
-Claimed Square's strengths are speed and simplicity. Credit cards are complex and often emotional. Talking about the Cash app, the goal is to revisit the coffee purchase of old and make it feasible using Bitcoin.
-"We have evidence to show people are using this as their primary spending account, their primary bank account, and, in some cases, their only bank account."
-"We have people that have been blocked from entering the financial industry." Even merchants had problems accepting payments. "Reaching the underserved, reaching the unbanked", he says, feels good.
-On Square adopting Bitcoin. "It was certainly contentious within our company." "I guess we always take the mindset that we can't wait for things to happen to us...If we want responsible uses...then we have to make that happen, we have to do the work to educate regulators, educate the SEC, show that we can provide more access to more people...give people a chance to participate in the economy...still a lot of disagreements and fights, but that's where the magic happens. We really push through, and this tested us. There was certainly a spotlight on us because of that fact, but there are a lot of unknowns. We ran towards them."
-On the future, the potential of Bitcoin. "The internet deserves a native currency. It will have a native currency. I don't know if it will be Bitcoin or not, but I hope it will be. I appreciate the technology so much; the principles behind it. Using the guide that the Internet will have a global currency...it's going to happen. As a company, as individuals, we need to learn how to make that happen. The biggest thing I worry about as a company is there is so much openness within the community, I hope nothing corporate will come in and threaten it." Protecting the open-source nature of the work. "This is a discussion I have a lot with Mike and the team. No one company or corporation should own this. This is the main question of everyone I meet in the community. We have a completely open mindset to ensure this remains a completely open platform. Let's not wait for it to happen. Let's do our part to encourage it to be used in healthy ways and ensure that everyone has access to it. If we ever go astray call us out. We can't do any of this without the technology being strong and available to everyone."
-"Obviously we are a centralized organization that benefits from decentralization. It's a theme of conversation within our organization and we're looking to decentralize our workforce. Cash is an interesting application in our company." Going to Australia next week to check in with the local team there. They are agnostic on what locale partners decide to nest in.
-Large corporate HQ's like Twitter and Square, "are a thing of the past". People will be able to work from wherever they please.
-"Nobody is going to a bank for a $6,000 loan. They're going to friends and family." They can all be served with this technology.
-Hesitates to make articulated 5-10 year predictions, prefers patience and iterating as each year develops. "We want to go back to the original idea of being able to purchase a coffee with it. That's why we're working with you. Whatever it takes to get there, we're going to try and make it happen." Encouraging more access to the financial space is the primary objective of the Square organization.
-"Over the past two years since we've really pushed our way into this, I've felt that electricity"
-Elizabeth Stark feels like she's living through the mid-90's again, "In a positive way".
-Stark is an optimist. "Really seeing the value behind the means of transacting without a middle party." It wasn't until Satoshi's whitepaper did we have the means to build a solution to this problem.
-"Our goal with Lightning is to enable an application layer like the Internet". -Stark
-On potential, compelling apps built on Bitcoin. "As I said, there's just so much to trust, to identity, to decentralizing almost everything we use today in a centralized way. We get the power of the crowd, the ability to see so many amazing perspectives and opinions to make our answers much better. I don't think about that as much as I think about what we need to focus on."
-On what they need to focus on. "There's a desire for more. There's definitely an incentive to hold the technology and encourage a mindset of saving rather than spending. But making it easier to spend, easier to transact, easier to do the everyday is what we need to focus on. We aren't necessarily going to be the company that comes up with the right frameworks or technologies, but I'm confident we'll be part of facilitating the process."
-The ultimate relationship with a regulator is that of education, Dorsey claims.
-On becomng a global company. "If we were ever able to use it as a payment mechanism today, we could release it all over the world opposed to the 5 markets we're in today. With each market, we have to find a banking partner, work through the regulatory." Only way to accept credit cards in Japan involved a 15-minute interview with an official. There is a large amount of legacy legislation that hampers adoption.
-On the next steps of democratizing finance. "Hardest part is continuing this conversation...certainly the regulatory bodies around the world, the banks..." Slowly but surely, Square is converting Goldman Sach's-types, showing them the reasons behind the movement. Having, "healthy discussions at the board level."
-On advice getting started in the industry. "Follow the conversation on Twitter, first and foremost. (laughter) And not just follow." When he first followed the industry, he felt like he had nothing to contribute. Join the conversation, express a point of view. "So many people fear expressing an opinion...instead of treating it like a conversation". "While you follow these conversations--jump in. People are going to think you're weird, they'll disagree with you, but you'll sharpen your opinions...find where they resonate." Pursue success from there.
BCash
I visited the BCash table and asked the representative to respond to claims that the company was causing label confusion amongst BTC and BCH. She locked up, asked if I was press, and, "was not at liberty to discuss the topic".
Scam. Scam. Scam. Did I say scam?
That's it for Bitcoin! Thanks for playing Consensus 2018!
I have tons of photos to upload, which I'll share in the Daily General Discussion as they come online.
submitted by MysteriousBarber to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

OnePageX: Taking Crypto Exchange to a New Level

♢ Introduction
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. Cryptocurrencies are alternative to fiat currency and they are decentralized: can be easily transferred or traded against each other on crypto exchange platforms without a central authority moderation.
In 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto was credited for the development of Bitcoin, the world's first ever decentralized cryptocurrency. It wasn't the first time an attempt would be made in developing a digital currency, in 1983 the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash. Later, in 1995, he implemented it through Digicash, an early form of cryptographic electronic payments which required user software in order to withdraw notes from a bank and designate specific encrypted keys before it can be sent to a recipient. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or a third party.
Following the development of Bitcoin by the anonymous cryptographer Satoshi Nakamoto (fictitious name), over 4000 Altcoins or crypto currencies had been developed in the likes of Ethereum, Litecoin, EOS,XRP and the rest. Each of this new crypto currencies trends the same path as Bitcoin with all operating on a decentralzed platforms using the power of the blockchain technology.
The emergence of decentralized digital currency allows easy transfer of assets and execution of various transactions without moderation from centralized authorities. Digital currency threatened to disrupt the world centralize economy. Centralized financial institutions like banks are wary of the threat digital currency like bitcoin carries.
♢ Blockchain
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, called a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database. Blockchain is an open distribute ledger that helps record transactions history between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. By design, Blockchain is resistant to the modification of the data it stores, as each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data, making it impossible to be compromised.
♢Cryptocurrency Exchange
Developing a digital currency is a thing, being able to trade it for value is another, and, that is where crypto exchange platform comes in.cryptocurrency-exchange-rate-panel-3d-260nw-795136543.jpg A crypto Exchange, is simply-put, where digital currencies or crypto currencies are traded. It is a decentralized digital marketplace that allows the trading of crypto currencies against other digital currencies or against conventional fiat currency. Of a truth, we have vast number of exchanges currently in operation in the crypto sphere but all not excluding one are doing same thing, operating in the same manner.
And OnePageX is is just one of the crypto exchange but, with unique features that set it aside from the rest.
♢ Concepts
A crypto currency exchange can be:
■ A brick-and-mortal business
It is a brick-and-mortal business when it exchanges traditional payment methods and digital currencies.
■ As an online business
In this case, electronically transferred money are exchange for digital currencies.
♢ Philosophy Behind OnePageX Cryptocurrency Exchange
OnePageX is not doing something special, but it's doing somethings different. OnePageX is an exchange platform built to execute digital currencies transfer and conversion with simplest simplicity. One thing OnePageX is doing different to other exchange is, all processes of transfer and conversion of digital currencies are carried out on a page and users dont need to sign up to trade on OnePageX which further strengthen the security of user private information. Binance, Huobi, and OKEX are largely regarded as the largest cryptocurrency exchanges, but none can boast of the 150+ choice of cryptocurrencies available for trade on OnePageX.
♢ OnePageX Vision
To enable crypto currencies trade on a simple interface.
♢Key Features of OnePageX
• No Registration!
Who needs to register?. OnePageX allows on-the-go exchange process without need for registration helping strengthen anonymity of it users. With no private details needed to be provided, identity of users is strictly concealed. With no registration, transactions can be carried out on the go, which make things a lot easier, faster and secure.
• OneBox Widget
OnePageX widget called OneBox which can be integrated into websites just by copy-pasting a snippet. This feature automatically makes OnePageX inerface to be readily available on these websites, therby allowing users of the websites access to quick cryptocurrency exchange.
• OnePage Transactions
The simplicity by which transactions are executed on OnePageX is adoring. Simple as you can think, multiple transactions are executed on a single page, and this transactions are saved in the form of cards that users can come back to and use any time.
• Selection
Since bitcoin inception in 2009, over 4,000 other Altcoins had been developed. Over 150+ cryto currencies are available for selection on OnePageX more than any other cryptocurrency exchange giving traders wide range of option of cryptocurrency to trade. OnePageX integrates with other exchange to find the best price for any given cryptocurrency.
♢ How to use OnePageX
OnePageX is the easiest to use out of any cryptocurrency exchanges.
Pick an asset to convert to. Enter a withdrawal address. Click “Start Exchange” A card will appear with a deposit address. Simply deposit to that address and you are done.
Each individual card will display a live transaction status that will let the user know about their transaction.source
♢ Benefits of Using OnePageX
• Cost efficient • Time efficient • Friendly interface • High security • Easy navigation • Large collection of cryptocurrencies.
NOTE: Transaction fee for 2018 is 0%
♢ Use case and Application
Kenneth Bridge is the C.E.O of an online shopping mall who is looking to use the strength of the growing crypto market and also adopt the blockchain technology to his companys' advantage. At their executives meeting, Mr Bridge proposed the adoption of cryptocurrencies for shopping on their online mall. The tasks remain;
1.How to bring a crypto exchange on their already existing website 2.Since customers will be buying goods with different crypto currencies, an exchange with the largest collection if not all crypto currencies is needed.
The Option of OnePageX was put on the table. An exchange with the largest collection of cryptocurrencies (150+), and also has a widget that can be integrated on the company's already existing website that will allow customers carry out crypto transaction in a fast, efficient and simple way on their website. OnePageX was adopted.
♢ Conclusion
OnePageX is undisputedly a step ahead it rival exchanges. Built to execute transactions in the easiest manner ever witnessed in the world of exchange and with it no registration feature which further strengthens users anonymity, will in no doubt leads to it mass adoption. By no arguement, OnePageX is taking crypto exchange to a new level.
More Information & Resources: OnePageX Website: https://onepagex.com/ OnePageX Steemit: https://steemit.com/@onepagex OnePageX Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useonepagex OnePageX Twitter: https://twitter.com/OnePageExchange OnePageX Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/onepageexchange/
submitted by Tonyryce to u/Tonyryce [link] [comments]

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Conversion table / chart for Bitcoin to Satoshi conversion. Bitcoin Satoshi; 1 btc: 100000000 satoshi: 2 btc: 200000000 satoshi: 3 btc: 300000000 satoshi Each of these bitcoin units (0.00000001 BTC) is called a satoshi. A satoshi is the smallest unit in a bitcoin. This unit is named after Satoshi Nakamoto – the alias of the bitcoin creator. There are also intermediate measurement units (microbitcoins, millibitcoins, bitcents). See the complete table of units below. Table of units for Satoshi ... What is a Satoshi? Each bitcoin (BTC) is divisible to the 8th decimal place, so each BTC can be split into 100,000,000 units. Each unit of bitcoin, or 0.00000001 bitcoin, is called a satoshi. A Satoshi is the smallest unit of Bitcoin. Buy Satoshis At These Exchanges: Popular Exchanges. Bits of Gold . Crypto exchange based in Tel Aviv; Buy with card, cash or bank transfer; Supports Bitcoin ... Bitcoin to Satoshi Conversion = Sats: What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin is the first digital currency. It uses the peer-to-peer protocol to make instant payments. It was created in 2009 by an anonymous developer (or a group of developers) whose pseudonym is Satoshi Nakamoto. Over the years, it has become more a store of value than a P2P electronic cash system. And some holders now call it the ... Satoshi to BTC Conversion Table. Mostly units of Bitcoin are expressed in decimal exponents such as BTC (Bitcoin), dBTC (deciBitcoin or 0.10000000 BTC), cBTC (centiBitcoin or 0.01000000 BTC), mBTC (milliBitcoins or 0.00100000 BTC), uBTC (microBitcoin or 0.00000100 BTC), Finney (0.00000010 BTC) and Satoshi (0.00000001 BTC).. The smallest unit of Bitcoin is known as a Satoshi.

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